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CONTENTS
Volume 35, Number 3, May10 2020
 

Abstract
Beams of steel frame-tube structures (SFTSs) typically have span-to-depth ratios of less than five. This makes a flexural beam unsuitable for such an application because the plastic hinges at the beam-ends cannot be adequately developed. This leads to lower ductility and energy dissipation capacities of SFTSs. To address this, SFTSs with bolted web-connected replaceable shear links (SFTS-BWSLs) are proposed. In this structural system, a web-connected replaceable shear link with a back-to-back double channel section is placed at the mid-length of the deep beam to act as a ductile fuse. This allows energy from earthquakes to be dissipated through link shear deformation. SFTS and SFTS-BWSL buildings were examined in this study. Several sub-structures were selected from each designed building and finite element models were established to study their respective hysteretic performance. The seismic behavior of each designed building was observed through static and dynamic analyses. The results indicate that the SFTS-BWSL and SFTS have similar initial lateral stiffness and shear leg properties. The SFTS-BWSL had lower strength, but higher ductility and energy dissipation capacities. Compared to the SFTS, the SFTS-BWSL had lower interstory drift, base shear force, and story shear force during earthquakes. This design approach could concentrate plasticity on the shear link while maintaining the residual interstory drift at less than 0.5%. The SFTS-BWSL is a reliable resistant system that can be repaired by replacing shear links damaged due to earthquakes.

Key Words
steel frame-tube structure; web-connected replaceable shear link; hysteretic behaviors; dynamic behaviors; finite element analyses

Address
Ming Lian and Mingzhou Su: School of Civil Engineering, Xi\'an University of Architecture & Technology, Xian 710055, China;
Key Lab of Structural Engineering and Earthquake Resistance, Ministry of Education (XAUAT), Xi\'an 710055, China
Qianqian Cheng and Hao Zhang: School of Civil Engineering, Xi\'an University of Architecture & Technology, Xian 710055, China


Abstract
The use of high-strength steel and concrete in the construction industry has been gaining increasing attention over the past few decades. With it comes the need to utilise high-strength structural bolts to ensure the design load to be transferred safely through joint regions, where the space is limited due to the reduced structural dimensions. However, research on the behaviour of high-strength structural bolts under various loading combinations is still insufficient. Most of the current design specifications concerning high-strength structural bolts were established based on a very limited set of experimental results. Moreover, as experimental programs normally include limited design parameters for investigation, finite element analysis has become one of the effective methods to assist the understanding of the behaviour of structural components. An accurate and simple full-range stress-strain model for high-strength structural bolts under different loading combinations was therefore developed, where the effects of bolt fracture was included. The ultimate strength capacities of various structural bolts obtained from the present experimental program were compared with the existing design provisions. Furthermore, design recommendations concerning the pure shear and tension, as well as combined shear and tension resistance of Grade 10.9 high-strength structural bolts were provided.

Key Words
high-strength bolts; Grade 10.9; combined tension and shear; numerical simulation; fracture; design codes

Address
Dongxu Li, Brian Uy, Jia Wang and Yuchen Song: School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

Abstract
The present research deals with the multi-dual-phase-lags thermoelasticity theory for thermoelastic behavior of transversely isotropic thermoelastic thin circular plate The Laplace and Hankel transform techniques have been used to find the solution of the problem. The displacement components, stress components, and conductive temperature distribution are computed in the transformed domain with the radial distance and further determined in the physical domain using numerical inversion techniques. The effect of rotation and two temperature are depicted graphically on the resulting quantities.

Key Words
transversely isotropic thermoelastic; thin plate; laplace and hankel transform; multi-dual-phase lag heat transfer; rotation effect

Address
Parveen Lata and Iqbal Kaur: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913798, Iran
Kulvinder Singh: Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada

Abstract
This paper describes a new type of replaceable fuse for moment resisting frames. Column-tree connections with beam splice connections are frequently preferred in the moment resisting frames since they eliminate field welding and provide good quality. In the column-tree connections, a part of the beam is welded to the column in the shop and the rest of the beam is bolted with the splice connection in the field. In this study, a replaceable reduced beam section (R-RBS) connection is proposed in order to eliminate welding process and facilitate assembly at the site. In the proposed R-RBS connection, one end is connected by a beam splice connection to the beam and the other end is connected by a bolted end-plate connection to the column. More importantly is that the proposed R-RBS connection allows the replacement of the damaged R-RBS easily right after an earthquake. Pursuant to this goal, experimental and numerical studies have been undertaken to investigate the performance of the R-RBS connection. An experimental study on the RBS connection was used to substantiate the numerical model using ABAQUS, a commercially available finite element software. Additionally, five different finite element models were developed to conduct a parametric study. The results of the analysis were compared in terms of the moment and energy absorption capacities, PEEQ, rupture and tri-axiality indexes. The design process as well as the optimum dimensions of the R-RBS connections are presented. It was also demonstrated that the proposed R-RBS connection satisfies AISC criteria based on the nonlinear finite element analysis results.

Key Words
reduced beam section; ABAQUS; rupture index; PEEQ; column-tree connections; cyclic loading; beam splice; tri-axiality index; replaceable fuse

Address
Yasin O. Ozkilic: Department of Civil Engineering, Necmettin Erbakan University, 42100, Konya, Turkey

Abstract
The steel-concrete double composite girder in the negative flexural region combines an additional concrete slab to the steel bottom flange to prevent the local steel buckling, however, the additional concrete slab may lower down the neutral axis of the composite section, which is a sensitive factor to the tensile stress restraint on the concrete deck. This is actually of great importance to the structural rationality and durability, but has not been investigated in detail yet. In this case, a series of 5.5 m-long composite girder specimens were tested by negative bending, among which the bottom slab configuration and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio in the concrete deck were the parameters. Furthermore, an analytical study concerning about the influence of bottom concrete slab thickness on the cracking and sectional bending-carrying capacity were carried out. The test results showed that the additional concrete at the bottom improved the composite sectional bending stiffness and bending-carrying capacity, whereas its effect on the concrete crack distribution was not obvious. According to the analytical study, the additional concrete slab at the bottom with an equivalent thickness to the concrete deck slab may provide the best contributions to the improvements of crack initiation bending moment and the sectional bending-carrying capacity. This can be applied for the design practice.

Key Words
double composite action; negative flexural region; cracking moment; bending-carrying capacity; structural rationality

Address
Chen Xu, Boyu Zhang and Qingtian Su: Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Siwei Liu: Shanghai Municipal Engineering Design Institute(Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China

Abstract
Since the scaffold is composed of modular members, the total height of multi-story scaffolds does not often meet with the headroom of construction buildings. At this time, other supporting members need to be set up on the top of scaffolds. However, the mechanical behaviors of the combined system of scaffolds and other supporting members have seldom been discussed. This study explores the stability of the combined system of scaffolds and shores. The loading tests conducted in the laboratory show that the critical load of the combined system of two-story scaffolds and wooden shores is about half that of the three-story scaffold system with the same height. In the failure of both the \"scaffold system\" and the \"combined system of scaffolds and shores\' after loading, the deformation mainly occurs in the in-plane direction of the scaffold. The outdoor loading test shows that no failure occurs on any members when the combined system fails. Instead, the whole system buckles and then collapses. In addition, the top formwork of the combined system can achieve the effect of lateral support reinforcement with small lateral support forces in the outdoor loading test. This study proposes the preliminary design guidelines for the scaffolding structural design.

Key Words
buckling; critical load; design guidelines; stability; steel scaffold; wooden shore

Address
Jui-Lin Peng: Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, ROC
Chung-Sheng Wang: Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC
Shu-Hong Wan: School of Resource and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Siu-Lai Chan: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China

Abstract
Current study on the buckling analysis of steel plate in composite structures normally focuses on applying finite element method to derive the buckling stress. However, it is time consuming, computationally complicated and tedious for general use in design by civil engineers. Therefore, in this study an analytical study is conducted to predict the buckling behavior of steel plates in composite structures. Hand calculation method was proposed based on energy principle. Novel buckling shapes with biquadratic functions along both loaded and unloaded direction were proposed to satisfy the boundary condition. Explicit solutions for predicting the critical local buckling stress of steel plate is obtained based on the Rayleigh-Ritz approach. The obtained results are compared with both experimental and numerical data. Good agreement has been achieved. Furthermore, the influences of key factors such as aspect ratio, width to thickness ratio, and elastic restraint stiffness on the local buckling performance are comprehensively discussed.

Key Words
local buckling; rotationally restrained; compression; steel plate; composite structure

Address
Ying Qin, Ke-Rong Luo and Xin Yan: Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of Ministry of Education, School of Civil Engineering,
Southeast University, Nanjing, China


Abstract
Circular concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns have an advantage over all other sections when they are used in compression members. This paper proposes a new approach for deriving a new empirical equation to predict the axial compressive capacity of circular CFST columns using the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The developed ANN model uses 5 input parameters that include the diameter of circular steel tube, the length of the column, the thickness of steel tube, the steel yield strength and the compressive strength of concrete. The only output parameter is the axial compressive capacity. Training and testing the developed ANN model was carried out using 219 available sets of data collected from the experimental results in the literature. An empirical equation is then proposed as an important result of this study, which is practically used to predict the axial compressive capacity of a circular CFST column. To evaluate the performance of the developed ANN model and the proposed equation, the predicted results are compared with those of the empirical equations stated in the current design codes and other models. It is shown that the proposed equation can predict the axial compressive capacity of circular CFST columns more accurately than other methods. This is confirmed by the high accuracy of a large number of existing test results. Finally, the parametric study result is analyzed for the proposed ANN equation to consider the effect of the input parameters on axial compressive strength.

Key Words
axial compressive capacity; concrete filled steel tube; empirical equation; artificial neural network; parametric study

Address
Duc-Kien Thai and Seung-Eock Kim: Department. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, South Korea
Mai-Suong. Nguyen: Department. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, South Korea;
Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Hanoi, Vietnam


Abstract
This paper presents two sets of full three-dimensional thermoelastic finite element analyses of superimposed thermo-mechanically loaded Spar Wingskin Joints made with laminated Graphite Fiber Reinforced Plastic composites. The study emphasizes the influence of residual thermal stresses and material anisotropy on the inter-laminar delamination behavior of the joint structure. The delamination has been pre-embedded at the most likely location, i.e., in resin layer between the top and next ply of the fiber reinforced plastic laminated wingskin and near the spar overlap end. Multi-Point Constraint finite elements have been made use of at the vicinity of the delamination fronts. This helps in simulating the growth of the embedded delamination at both ends. The inter-laminar thermoelastic peel and shear stresses responsible for causing delamination damage due to a combined thermal and a static loading have been evaluated. Strain energy release rate components corresponding to the Mode I (opening), Mode II (sliding) and Mode III (tearing) of delamination are determined using the principle of Virtual Crack Closure Technique. These are seen to be different and non-self-similar at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. Residual stresses developed due to the thermoelastic anisotropy of the laminae are found to strongly influence the delamination onset and propagation characteristics, which have been reflected by the asymmetries in the nature of energy release rate plots and their significant variation along the delamination front.

Key Words
delamination; strain energy release rate; Spar Wingskin Joint; thermoelastic; virtual crack closure technique

Address
P.K. Mishra and S.K. Panda: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India
A.K. Pradhan and M.K. Pandit: School of Mechanical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, India

Abstract
This work aims to study effects of the crack and the surface energy on the free longitudinal vibration of axially functionally graded nanorods. The surface energy parameters considered are the surface stress, the surface density, and the surface Lamé constants. The cracked nanorod is modelled by dividing it into two parts connected by a linear spring in which its stiffness is related to the crack severity. The surface and bulk material properties are considered to vary in the length direction according to the power law distribution. Hamilton\'s principle is implemented to derive the governing equation of motion and boundary conditions. Considering the surface stress causes that the derived governing equation of motion becomes non-homogeneous while this was not the case in works that only the surface density and the surface Lamé constants were considered. To extract the frequencies of nanorod, firstly the non-homogeneous governing equation is converted to a homogeneous one using an appropriate change of variable, and then for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions the governing equation is solved using the harmonic differential quadrature method. Since the present work considers effects of all the surface energy parameters, it can be claimed that this is a comprehensive work in this regard.

Key Words
functionally graded materials; free axial vibration; cracked nanorod; surface energy; harmonic differential quadrature method

Address
Reza Nazemnezhad: School of Engineering, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
Hassan Shokrollahi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


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