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    Prof. Ashraf El Damatty
    Department of Civil and Environmental Eng.
    The University of Western Ontario
    London, Ontario, N6A 5B9, Canada

    Prof. Thomas Kang

    Dept. of Architecture & Architectural Eng.
    College of Engineering Seoul Natl. Univ.
    Seoul 08826, Korea

    Prof. Francesco Ricciardelli
    Dept. of Engineering
    Universita della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
    Aversa (CE) 81031, Italy
 SCIE (Impact Factor: 1.6)
ISSN: 1226-6116 (Print)
  ISSN: 1598-6225(Online)
Vol. 38/39 (12 issues) for 2024,
Hybrid Open Access journal: there is an Optional Open Access Fee of USD 895.
For correspondence:
The Official Journal of Wind Engineering Institute of Korea (WEIK) and co-sponsored by the
  Dept. of Architecture & Architectural Engineering (DAAE) at Seoul National University.
This work was supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies
  (KOFST) grant funded by the Korea government (MOSF & MSIP).
Aims and Scope

The WIND AND STRUCTURES, An International Journal, aims at: - Major publication channel for research in the general area of wind and structural engineering, - Wider distribution at more affordable subscription rates; - Faster reviewing and publication for manuscripts submitted.
The main theme of the journal is the wind effects on structures. Areas covered by the journal include:
Wind loads and structural response
Bluff-body aerodynamics
Computational method on wind effects
Wind tunnel modeling
Local wind environment
Codes and regulations for wind loads
Wind effects on large scale structures
Editorial Board
Prof. Aly Aly
Louisiana State University

Dr. Hamidreza Alinejad
Seoul National University

Prof. Christopher J. Baker
University of Birmingham

Prof. Gianni Bartoli
University of Firenze

Prof. Girma Bitsumalak
University of Western Ontario

Dr. Dar Boggs
Boggs Engineering & Technical, LLC

Prof. Luca Bruno
Politecnico di Torino

Prof. Steve C. Cai
Louisiana State University

Prof. Shuyang Cao
Tongji University

Prof. Luca Caracoglia
Northeastern University

Prof. Xinzhong Chen
Texas Tech University

Prof. Vincent Denoel
Universiry of Liege
Prof. Yaojun Ge
Tongji University

Prof. Christos T. Georgakis
Aarhus University

Prof. Ming Gu
Tongji University

Dr. John Holmes
JDH Consulting

Prof. Guoqing Huang
Chongqing University

Prof. Mingfeng Huang
Zhejiang University

Dr. Seoung Yong Jeong

Prof. Hrvoje Kozmar
University of Zagreb

Prof. Kenny C.S. Kwok
University of Sydney

Prof. Chunxiang Li
University of Shanghai

Prof. Yongle Li
Southwest Jiaotong University, China

Prof. Acir Mercio Loredo-Souza
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do
Sul, Brazil

Prof. Alam Md Mahbub
Harbin Institute of Technology

Prof. Kazuyoshi Nishijima
Kyoto University

Prof. Jean Paul Pinelli
Florida Institute of Technology

Dr. Stanislav Pospisil
Academy of Sciences of the Czech
Republic, Czech Republic

Prof. Ted Stathopoulos
Concordia University

Prof. Tim Tse
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Hong Kong

Dr. Weiguo Wang
National Centers for Environmental
Prediction, U.S.A.

Dr. Graeme Wood

Prof. Teng Wu
University at Buffalo

Prof. Guirong Yan
Missouri University of Science and Technology

Prof. Qingshan Yang
Chongqing University
Guide to Authors (Last updated: Oct 25, 2021)

1. Submission of the paper
Authors are asked to submit manuscripts in PDF (or Latex) format electronically through the Techno-Press Manuscript Upload System (TeMUS) ( Exceptionally, the special issue papers may be directly submitted to the Guest Editor. If you have difficulties in using TeMUS, please contact us at[]. On receiving submitted papers, the system will issue the paper ID and Password to the corresponding author which may be conveniently used to check the status of submitted papers. Authors should carefully check if their paper satisfied all the requirements in the preliminary list before submission.

2. Preparation of the manuscript
General : The manuscripts should be in English and typed with double column and single line spacing on single side of A4 paper. Submitted papers will be published in the category of regular technical papers only. The first page of an article should contain: (1) a title of paper which well reflects the contents of the paper (Arial, 15pt), (2) all the name(s) and affiliations(s) of authors(s) (Arial, 11pt), (3) an abstract of 100~250 words (Times New Roman, 9.5pt), (4) 5-10 keywords following the abstract, and (5) footnote (personal title and email address of the corresponding author (required) and other authors' (not mandatory)). The paper should be concluded by proper conclusions which reflect the findings in the paper. The normal length of the technical paper should be about 8-16 journal pages (double column format). Authors are advised to read the details in the Authors' Guide for guide and Template.
Tables and figures : Tables and figures should be consecutively numbered and have short titles. They should be referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Fig. 1(a), Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1(a)-(d) / Table 1, Tables 1-2), etc. Tables should have borders (1/2pt plane line) with the captions right before the table. Figures should be properly located in the text as an editable image file (.jpg) with captions on the lower cell. All of the original figures and tables are required to be placed at the suitable locations in the text.
Units and mathematical expressions : It is desirable that units of measurements and abbreviations should follow the System Internationale (SI) except where the other unit system is more suitable. The numbers identifying the displayed mathematical expression should be placed in the parentheses and referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Eq. (1), Eqs. (1)-(2)). Mathematical expressions must be inserted as an object (set as Microsoft Equations 3.0) for Microsoft Word 2007 and after versions. Image-copied text or equations are not acceptable unless they are editable. The raised and lowered fonts cannot be used for superscription and subscription.
References : A list of references which reflect the current state of technology in the field locates after conclusions of the paper. For details to prepare the list of references and cite them in the text, authors are advised to follow the introduction and the sample list in the Authors' Guide.

3. Review
All the submitted papers that have passed the preliminary check by the editors will undergo a rigorous peer-review process to judge their significance and originality. Those papers positively recommended by at least two expert reviewers will be finally accepted for publication in the Techno-Press Journals or after any required modifications are made.

4. Proofs
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript will not be accepted at this stage. Proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

5. Copyright
Submission of an article to a Techno-Press Journal implies that it presents the original and unpublished work, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. On acceptance of the submitted manuscript, it is implied that the copyright thereof is transferred to the Wind Engineering Institute of Korea. The Agreement of Authorship, Originality, and Copyright Transfer must be signed and submitted.

6. Ethics
General: Techno-Press applies research and publication ethics standards based on COPE's International Standards for Editors and Authors ( Violation of publication ethics will result in the activation of COPE flow chart. (
Authorship: Authors are encouraged to check ICMJE's guideline for authorship. ( Authorship problems will be dealt with according to COPE flowcharts. (
WEIK Code of Ethics: Code of Ethics

7. Open Access
There is an option of publishing your paper as Open Access. When you receive a formal acceptance email, you will find a link that you may click on to pay the Article Processing Charge (APC) for Open Access publishing.

Abstracted/indexed in
Science Citation Index Expanded (SciSearch)
ISI Alerting Services
Current Contents/Engineering, Computing & Technology
International Civil Engineering Abstracts
Metals Abstracts
Engineering Index
Applied Mechanics Reviews
Shock and Vibration Digest
Sample Issue
Volume 15, Number 1, January 2012
  • Wind characteristics of a strong typhoon in marine surface boundary layer
    Lili Song, Q.S. Li, Wenchao Chen, Peng Qin, Haohui Huang and Y.C. He
    Abstract; Full Text (2220K)

High-resolution wind data were acquired from a 100-m high offshore tower during the passage of Typhoon Hagupit in September, 2008. The meteorological tower was equipped with an ultrasonic anemometer and a number of cup anemometers at heights between 10 and 100 m. Wind characteristics of the strong typhoon, such as mean wind speed and wind direction, turbulence intensity, turbulence integral length scale, gust factor and power spectra of wind velocity, vertical profiles of mean wind speed were investigated in detail based on the wind data recorded during the strong typhoon. The measured results revealed that the wind characteristics in different stages during the typhoon varied remarkably. Through comparison with non-typhoon wind measurements, the phenomena of enhanced levels of turbulence intensity, gust factors, turbulence integral length scale and spectral magnitudes in typhoon boundary layer were observed. The monitored data and analysis results are expected to be useful for the wind-resistant design of offshore structures and buildings on seashores in typhoon-prone regions.

Key Words
strong typhoon; wind characteristic; wind data measurement.

Lili Song : Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, 510080, China Q.S. Li : Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Wenchao Chen , Peng Qin and Haohui Huang : Guangdong Climate Centre, Guangzhou, 510080, China Y.C. He : Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

  • Computing turbulent far-wake development behind a wind turbine with and without swirl
    Yingying Hu, Siva Parameswaran, Jiannan Tan, Suranga Dharmarathne, Neha Marathe, Zixi Chen, Ronald Grife and Andrew Swift
    Abstract; Full Text (1178K)

Modeling swirling wakes is of considerable interest to wind farm designers. The present work is an attempt to develop a computational tool to understand free, far-wake development behind a single rotating wind turbine. Besides the standard momentum and continuity equations from the boundary layer theory in two dimensions, an additional equation for the conservation of angular momentum is introduced to study axisymmetric swirl effects on wake growth. Turbulence is simulated with two options: the standard k-e model and the Reynolds Stress transport model. A finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equations for mean flow and turbulence quantities. A marching algorithm of expanding grids is employed to enclose the growing far-wake and to solve the equations implicitly at every axial step. Axisymmetric far-wakes with/without swirl are studied at different Reynolds numbers and swirl numbers. Wake characteristics such as wake width, half radius, velocity profiles and pressure profiles are computed. Compared with the results obtained under similar flow conditions using the computational software, FLUENT, this far-wake model shows simplicity with acceptable accuracy, covering large wake regions in far-wake study.

Key Words
far wake; swirl; boundary layer; self-similarity; k-e model; Reynolds Stress transport model.

Yingying Hu, Siva Parameswaran, Jiannan Tan, Suranga Dharmarathne and Zixi Chen: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA Neha Marathe and Andrew Swift : Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Department of Civil Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA Ronald Grife : Vestas Technology R&D Americas, Inc., USA

  • A proposed technique for determining aerodynamic pressures on residential homes
    Tuan-Chun Fu, Aly Mousaad Aly, Arindam Gan Chowdhury, Girma Bitsuamlak, DongHun Yeo and Emil Simiu
    Abstract; Full Text (3429K)

Wind loads on low-rise buildings in general and residential homes in particular can differ significantly depending upon the laboratory in which they were measured. The differences are due in large part to inadequate simulations of the low-frequency content of atmospheric velocity fluctuations in the laboratory and to the small scale of the models used for the measurements. The imperfect spatial coherence of the low frequency velocity fluctuations results in reductions of the overall wind effects with respect to the case of perfectly coherent flows. For large buildings those reductions are significant. However, for buildings with sufficiently small dimensions (e.g., residential homes) the reductions are relatively small. A technique is proposed for simulating the effect of low-frequency flow fluctuations on such buildings more effectively from the point of view of testing accuracy and repeatability than is currently the case. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed technique. The technique eliminates a major cause of discrepancies among measurements conducted in different laboratories. In addition, the technique allows the use of considerably larger model scales than are possible in conventional testing. This makes it possible to model architectural details, and improves Reynolds number similarity. The technique is applicable to wind tunnels and large scale open jet facilities, and can help to standardize flow simulations for testing residential homes as well as significantly improving testing accuracy and repeatability. The work reported in this paper is a first step in developing the proposed technique. Additional tests are planned to further refine the technique and test the range of its applicability.

Key Words
aerodynamics; atmospheric surface layer; building technology; low-rise structures; open jet facilities; residential buildings; wind engineering; wind tunnels.

Tuan-Chun Fu,Arindam Gan Chowdhury and Girma Bitsuamlak :Department of Civil and Environ. Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, USA Aly Mousaad Aly :Intl. Hurricane Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, USA DongHun Yeo and Emil Simiu : National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA

  • A neural network shelter model for small wind turbine siting near single obstacles
    Andrew William Brunskill and William David Lubitz
    Abstract; Full Text (2392K)

Many potential small wind turbine locations are near obstacles such as buildings and shelterbelts, which can have a significant, detrimental effect on the local wind climate. A neural networkbased model has been developed which predicts mean wind speed and turbulence intensity at points in an obstacle\'s region of influence, relative to unsheltered conditions. The neural network was trained using measurements collected in the wakes of 18 scale building models exposed to a simulated rural atmospheric boundary layer in a wind tunnel. The model obstacles covered a range of heights, widths, depths, and roof pitches typical of rural buildings. A field experiment was conducted using three unique full scale obstacles to validate model predictions and wind tunnel measurements. The accuracy of the neural network model varies with the quantity predicted and position in the obstacle wake. In general, predictions of mean velocity deficit in the far wake region are most accurate. The overall estimated mean uncertainties associated with model predictions of normalized mean wind speed and turbulence intensity are 4.9% and 12.8%, respectively.

Key Words
wind tunnel; small wind turbine; wind energy; micrositing; wake prediction; anemometer; sheltering; neural network.

Andrew William Brunskill and William David Lubitz : University of Guelph, School of Engineering. 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. N1G 2W1

  • Observed characteristics of tropical cyclone vertical wind profiles
    Ian M. Giammanco, John L. Schroeder and Mark D. Powell
    Abstract; Full Text (4334K)

Over the last decade substantial improvements have been made in our ability to observe the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Low-level wind speed maxima have been frequently observed in Global Positioning System dropwindsonde (GPS sonde) profiles. Data from GPS sondes and coastal Doppler radars were employed to evaluate the characteristics of tropical cyclone vertical wind profiles in open ocean conditions and at landfall. Changes to the mean vertical wind profile were observed azimuthally and with decreasing radial distance toward the cyclone center. Wind profiles within the hurricane boundary layer exhibited a logarithmic increase with height up to the depth of the wind maximum.

Key Words
tropical cyclones; GPS dropwindsonde; radar; wind; profiles; low-level jets; velocity azimuth display.

Ian M. Giammanco and John L. Schroeder: Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas USA Mark D. Powell : NOAA/AOML Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida, USA

Table of Contents.
  • 2024  Volume 38      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5
  • 2023  Volume 37      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2023  Volume 36      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 35      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2022  Volume 34      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 33      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2021  Volume 32      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 31      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2020  Volume 30      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 29      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2019  Volume 28      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 27      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2018  Volume 26      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 25      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2017  Volume 24      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 23      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2016  Volume 22      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 21      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2015  Volume 20      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 19      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2014  Volume 18      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 17      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2013  Volume 16      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2012  Volume 15      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2011  Volume 14      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2010  Volume 13      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2009  Volume 12      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2008  Volume 11      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2007  Volume 10      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2006  Volume 9      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2005  Volume 8      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2004  Volume 7      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2003  Volume 6      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2002  Volume 5      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2001  Volume 4      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4    No.5    No.6
  • 2000  Volume 3      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 1999  Volume 2      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 1998  Volume 1      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4


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