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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 2, June 2020
 
All Articleed are Open Access

Abstract
Distributed energy resources (DERs) are essential for coping with growing multiple energy demands. A microgrid (MG) is a small-scale version of the power system which makes possible the integration of DERs as well as achieving maximum demand-side management utilization. Hence, this study focuses on the analysis of optimal power dispatch considering economic aspects in a multi-carrier microgrid (MCMG) with price-responsive loads. This paper proposes a novel time-based demand-side management in order to reshape the load curve, as well as preventing the excessive use of energy in peak hours. In conventional studies, energy consumption is optimized from the perspective of each infrastructure user without considering the interactions. Here, the interaction of energy system infrastructures is considered in the presence of energy storage systems (ESSs), small-scale energy resources (SSERs), and responsive loads. Simulations are performed using GAMS (General Algebraic modeling system) to model MCMG, which are connected to the electricity, natural gas, and district heat networks for supplying multiple energy demands. Results show that the simultaneous operation of various energy carriers, as well as utilization of price-responsive loads, lead to better MCMG performance and decrease operating costs for smart distribution grids. This model is examined on a typical MCMG, and the effectiveness of the proposed model is proven.

Key Words
demand response; operation; microgrid; distributed energy resources

Address
Mahdi Azimian ,Vahid Amir and Shapour Haddadipour: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
Coal has made a wonderful contribution to the production of cheap electricity. Coal based power plants have been the backbone of world\'s electricity for a long time now. Coal while being cheap and easily available is also a source of various solid, liquid and gaseous effluents which are responsible for the environmental degradation. Environmental issues caused by coal need to be studied and analyzed, then a common global consensus must be formed. Efficient action must be taken against each and every type of pollutant that is produced by this particular industry. The research aims to provide a brief overlook of the environmental impact of India\'s coal-based power plants. The aim of this study is to introduce a novel environmentally feasible energy scenario for the future of Indian power sector which has been named as \"OPES\". OPES is mathematically simulated using the combination of GAMS and LEAP. OPES is simple to comprehend and can be reproduced easily for other case studies as well. Results show that OPES can help the Indian power sector to minimize its environmental impact without causing any problems in the energy supply.

Key Words
coal-based power production; environmental pollution; LEAP; GAMS; renewable energy

Address
Zuhaib Tayar Mirza and Mehrdad Abedi: Department of Electrical Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Photovoltaic systems are progressively attached importance and their installed capacity increases day by day because of their reliability, decremented installation and operating cost and simple construction structure. Generated power obtained from a photovoltaic system changes depending upon regional distinctness, and It can be estimated approximately by taking into consideration mean global radiation amount, temperature and humidity. However, there may be different regional negative or positive factors like dust, air pollution, desert powder which affect generated power. The best reliable data for a region can be obtained from the existing photovoltaic system in the region. For this purpose, a monitoring system for 1000W monocrystalline photovoltaic system constructed at Kocaeli University Uzunciftlik Nuh Cimento Vocational High Scholl is prepared. The installed monitoring system shows and records real values generated from the photovoltaic system and environmental data. In the study, Instantaneous data obtained from the monitoring system for October 2018 and 7th October 2018 is given within figures. Additionally, daily and monthly total energy productions of the photovoltaic system are given for October 2018 and date interval between July 2018 and March 2018, respectively.

Key Words
PV systems; monitoring

Address
Ersoy Kelebekler: Department of Electricity and Energy, Uzunciftlik Nuh Cimento VHS, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey

Riza Emre Ergun: Department of Motor Vehicles and Transportation Technologies, Ford Otosan Ihsaniye Automotive VHS, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey

Abstract
In developing countries especially in African continent, rapid population growth in cities is a major concern. Majority of governments in Africa have made more effort to develop urban areas as compared to the rural ones. Social and economic activities are more concentrated in urban areas. This is a pushing factor for the rapid population growth in cities as many people, especially young generation, tend to migrate from rural to urban. This growth leads to excessive exploitation of natural resources, environmental degradation and increased pressure on social services. Rapid increased population acts as an encouragement to construct smart cities for achieving needs for present and future generations. Tanzania as one of the developing countries in Africa has taken initiatives in establishing smart cities. The aim of this study therefore, is to examine opportunities and challenges in the development of Smart cities in Tanzania with a case study of Mbeya city. In addition, conceptualization about development of smart cities is proposed to prioritize the planning of smart grid among other smart city infrastructure systems. Conclusively, Mbeya city has a full potential of many strengths and opportunities for successful development as a smart city.

Key Words
smart city; smart grid; smart city infrastructure; SWOT analysis; renewable energy

Address
Isaka J. Mwakitalima, Mohammad Rizwan and Narendra Kumar:Department of Electrical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, India

Abstract
Industrial cooling towers are often ageing infrastructure that is expensive to maintain and operate. A novel approach is introduced in which a heat pump circuit is incorporated to reduce the load upon the towers by extracting low-grade energy from the stream sent to the towers and repurposing in on-site processing operations. To demonstrate the concept, a model was constructed, which uses industrial data on cooling towers linked to a smelter

Key Words
low-grade heat recovery; heat pumps; cooling towers; energy repurposing; mineral processing; environmental sustainability

Address
Shannon H. McLean, Corey A. Laamanen and John A. Scott: School of Engineering, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON, Canada

Jeff Chenier and Sari Muinonen: Sudbury Integrated Nickel Operations (a Glencore Company), Sudbury, ON, Canada


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