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CONTENTS
Volume 69, Number 3, February10 2019
 

Abstract
Utilization of fiber beam-column element has gained considerable attention in recent years due mainly to its ability to model distributed plasticity over the length of the element through a number of integration points. However, the relatively high sensitivity of the method to modeling parameters as well as material behavior models can pose a significant challenge. Residual drift is one of the seismic demands which is highly sensitive to modeling parameters and material behavior models. Permanent deformations play a prominent role in the post-earthquake evaluation of serviceability of bridges affected by a near-fault ground shaking. In this research, the influence of distributed plasticity modeling parameters using both force-based and displacement-based fiber elements in the prediction of internal forces obtained from the nonlinear static analysis is studied. Having chosen suitable type and size of elements and number of integration points, the authors take the next step by investigating the influence of material behavioral model employed for the prediction of permanent deformations in the nonlinear dynamic analysis. The result shows that the choice of element type and size, number of integration points, modification of cyclic concrete behavior model and reloading strain of concrete significantly influence the fidelity of fiber element method for the prediction of permanent deformations.

Key Words
distributed plasticity; permanent displacements; displacement-based and force-based fiber element; integration point; material behavior model; reloading strain of concrete

Address
Mokhtar Ansari and Naser Safaeian Hamzehkolaei: Department of Civil Engineering, Bozorgmehr University of Qaenat, Qaen, Iran
Farhad Daneshjoo: Department of Civil Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Amir Safiey: Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, USA
Maryam Sorkhou: Department of Civil Engineering, Gilan University, Rasht, Iran

Abstract
Infills are as important members in structural design as beams, columns and braces. They have significant effect on structural behavior. Because of lots of variables in infills like material non-linear behavior, the interaction between frames and infill, etc., the infills performance during an earthquake is complicated, so have led designers do not consider the effect of infills in designing the structure. However, the experimental studies revealed that the infills have the remarkable effect on structure behavior. As if these effects ignored, it might occur soft-story phenomena, torsion or short-column effects on the structures. One simple and appropriate method for considering the infills effects in analyzing, is replacing the infills with diagonal compression strut with the same performance of real infill, instead of designing the whole infill. Because of too many uncertainties, codes and researchers gave many expressions that were not as the same as the others. The major intent of this paper is calculation the width of this diagonal strut, which has the most characteristics of infill. This paper by comprehensive on different parameters like the modulus of young or moment of inertia of columns presents a new formula for achieving the equivalent strut width. In fact, this new formula is extracted from about 60 FEM analyses models. It can be said that this formula is very efficient and accurate in estimating the equivalent strut width, considering the large number of effective parameters relative to similar relationships provided by other researchers. In most cases, the results are so close to the values obtained by the FEM. In this formula, the effect of out of plane buckling is neglected and this formula is used just in steel structures. Also, the thickness of infill panel, and the lateral force applied to frame are constant. In addition, this new formula is just for modeling the lateral stiffness. Obtaining the nearest response in analyzing is important to the designers, so this new formula can help them to reach more accurate response among a lot of experimental equations proposed by researchers.

Key Words
infill; equivalent strut width; Finite Element Method; macro mode

Address
Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour: Mechanical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Arash Mahdipour Arasteh: Earthquake Engineering Department, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
This work addresses a three-dimensional nonlinear structural analysis of the constructive phases of a cable-stayed segmental concrete bridge using The Finite Element Method through ANSYS, version 14.5. New subroutines have been added to ANSYS via its UPF customization tool to implement viscoelastoplastic constitutive equations with cracking capability to model concrete\'s structural behavior. This numerical implementation allowed the use of three-dimensional twenty-node quadratic elements (SOLID186) with the Element-Embedded Rebar model option (REINF264), conducting to a fast and efficient solution. These advantages are of fundamental importance when large structures, such as bridges, are modeled, since an increasing number of finite elements is demanded. After validating the subroutines, the bridge located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and known as \"Ponte do Saber\" (Bridge of Knowledge, in Portuguese), has been numerically modeled, simulating each of the constructive phases of the bridge. Additionally, the data obtained numerically is compared with the field data collected from monitoring conducted during the construction of the bridge, showing good agreement.

Key Words
cable-stayed bridges; bridge modeling; numerical analysis; the Finite Element Method; ANSYS; the UPF customization tool

Address
Paula M. Lazzari, Americo Campos Filho, Bruna M. Lazzari and Alexandre R. Pacheco: Civil Engineering Graduate Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 99 Oswaldo Aranha Ave, 90035-190, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Renan R. S. Gomes: Civil Engineering Graduate Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 550 Pedro Calmon Ave, 21941-901, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Abstract
Accurately determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structural floor is an essential step to assess the floor\'s human-induced vibration serviceability. In the theoretical analysis, the prestressed concrete floor can be idealized as a multi-span continuous anisotropic plate. This paper presents a new analytical approach to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a multi-span continuous orthotropic plate. The suggested approach is based on the combined modal and perturbation method, which differs from other approaches as it decomposes the admissible functions defining the mode shapes by considering the intermodal coupling. The implementation of this technique is simple, requiring no tedious mathematical calculations. The perturbation solution is validated with the numerical results.

Key Words
perturbation method; multi-span continuous anisotropic plate; intermodal coupling; natural frequencies

Address
Jiepeng Liu and Y. Frank Chen:
1) School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
2) Key Laboratory of New Technology for Construction of Cities in Mountain Area (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045, China
Liang Cao:
1) School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China
2) Postdoctoral Research Station, School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
3) Key Laboratory of New Technology for Construction of Cities in Mountain Area (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400045, China

Abstract
In current seismic design codes, various elastic design acceleration spectra are defined considering different seismological and soil characteristics and are widely used tool for calculation of seismic loads acting on structures. Response spectrum analyses directly use the elastic design acceleration spectra whereas time history analyses use acceleration records of earthquakes whose acceleration spectra fit the design spectra of seismic codes. Due to the fact that obtaining coherent structural response quantities with the seismic design code considerations is a desired circumstance in dynamic analyses, the response spectra of earthquake records used in time history analyses had better fit to the design acceleration spectra of seismic codes. This paper evaluates structural response distributions of multi-story reinforced concrete frames obtained from nonlinear time history analyses which are performed by using the scaled earthquake records compatible with various elastic design spectra. Time domain scaling procedure is used while processing the response spectrum of real accelerograms to fit the design acceleration spectra. The elastic acceleration design spectra of Turkish Seismic Design Code 2007, Uniform Building Code 1997 and Eurocode 8 are considered as target spectra in the scaling procedure. Soil classes in different seismic codes are appropriately matched up with each other according to VS30 values. The maximum roof displacements and the total base shears of considered frame structures are determined from nonlinear time history analyses using the scaled earthquake records and the results are presented by graphs and tables. Coherent structural response quantities reflecting the influence of elastic design spectra of various seismic codes are obtained.

Key Words
seismic design codes; elastic design acceleration spectra; time domain scaling procedure; nonlinear time history analyses; dynamic response quantities

Address
Taner Ucar: Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey
Onur Merter: Department of Civil Engineering, Usak University, 64000, Merkez, Usak, Turkey

Abstract
This paper proposes a chattering-free sliding mode control (CFSMC) method for seismically excited structures. The method is based on a fuzzy logic (FL) model applied to smooth the control force and eliminate chattering, where the switching part of the control law is replaced by an FL output. The CFSMC is robust and keeps the advantages of the conventional sliding mode control (SMC), whilst removing the chattering and avoiding the time-consuming process of generating fuzzy rule basis. The proposed method is tested on an 8-story shear frame equipped with an active tendon system. Results indicate that the new method not only can effectively enhance the seismic performance of the structural system compared to the SMC, but also ensure system stability and high accuracy with less computational cost. The CFSMC also requires less amount of energy from the active tendon system to produce the desired structural dynamic response.

Key Words
sliding mode control; chattering; fuzzy logic; structural control

Address
Keyvan Aghabalaei Baghaei and Hosein Ghaffarzadeh: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
S. Ali Hadigheh: School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Daniel Dias-da-Costa:
1) School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
2) ISISE, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Abstract
This research aims to assess the tight seismic risk curve of the intake tower at Geumgwang reservoir by considering the recorded historical earthquake data in the Korean Peninsula. The seismic fragility, a significant part of risk assessment, is updated by using Bayesian inference to consider the uncertainties and computational efficiency. The reservoir is one of the largest reservoirs in Korea for the supply of agricultural water. The intake tower controls the release of water from the reservoir. The seismic risk assessment of the intake tower plays an important role in the risk management of the reservoir. Site-specific seismic hazard is computed based on the four different seismic source maps of Korea. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) method is used to estimate the annual exceedance rate of hazard for corresponding Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). Hazard deaggregation is shown at two customary hazard levels. Multiple dynamic analyses and a nonlinear static pushover analysis are performed for deriving fragility parameters. Thereafter, Bayesian inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is used to update the fragility parameters by integrating the results of the analyses. This study proves to reduce the uncertainties associated with fragility and risk curve, and to increase significant statistical and computational efficiency. The range of seismic risk curve of the intake tower is extracted for the reservoir site by considering four different source models and updated fragility function, which can be effectively used for the risk management and mitigation of reservoir.

Key Words
seismic risk assessment; intake tower; probabilistic seismic hazard analysis; seismic fragility, bayesian inference

Address
Jahangir Alam and Dookie Kim: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan-si 54150, Republic of Korea
Byounghan Choi: Rural Research Institute, 870, Haean-ro Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si Gyeonggi-do, 15634, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the hygrothermal effects on the behavior of reinforced-concrete beams strengthened by bonded composite laminate plates (theta n/90 m)s. This work is based on a simple theoretical model to estimate the interfacial stresses developed between the concrete beam and the composite with taking into account the hygrothermal effect. Fibre orientation angle effects of number of 90o layers and effects of plate thickness and length on the distributions of interfacial stress in the concrete beams reinforced with composite plates have also been studied.

Key Words
interfacial stresses; concrete beam; composite laminate; hygrothermal effects; fibre angle

Address
Kamel Antar and Samir Benyoucef: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, 22000, Algeria
Khaled Amara and Mokhtar Ellali: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University Center of Ain Temouchent, 46000, Algeria
Mokhtar Bouazza: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Bechar, 8000, Algeria

Abstract
In present study, a novel refined hyperbolic shear deformation theory is proposed for the buckling analysis of thick isotropic plates. The new displacement field is constructed with only two unknowns, as against three or more in other higher order shear deformation theories. However, the hyperbolic sine function is assigned according to the shearing stress distribution across the plate thickness, and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using any shear correction factors. The equations of motion associated with the present theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The analytical solution of the buckling of simply supported plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions was obtained using the Navier method. The critical buckling load results for thick isotropic square plates are compared with various available results in the literature given by other theories. From the present analysis, it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling response of isotropic plates.

Key Words
buckling analysis; isotropic plates; new displacement field; Navier method; analytical modeling

Address
M. Fellah and Mohamed Benguediab: Departement de Genie Mécanique, Faculte de Technologie, Universite Sidi Bel Abbes, Algerie
Kada Draiche:
1) Departement de Genie Civil, Universite Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret, BP 78 Zaaroura, 14000 Tiaret, Algerie
2) Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
Mohammed Sid Ahmed Houari:
1) Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
2) University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Mascara, Algeria
3) Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia
Abdelouahed Tounsi: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
Tareq Saeed and Mohammed Sh. Alhodaly: Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM)-Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
This paper aims to evaluate the behavior of Dorim-Goh bridge in Seoul, Korea, under static and dynamic loads effects by ambient trucks. The prestressed concrete (PSC) girders and reinforcement concrete (RC) slab of the bridge are evaluated and assessed. A short period monitoring system is designed which comprises displacement, strain and accelerometer sensors to measure the bridge performance under static and dynamic trucks loads. The statistical analysis is used to assess the static behavior of the bridge and the wavelet analysis and probabilistic using Weibull distribution are used to evaluate the frequency and reliability of the dynamic behavior of the bridge. The results show that the bridge is safe under static and dynamic loading cases. In the static evaluation, the measured neutral axis position of the girders is deviated within 5% from its theoretical position. The dynamic amplification factor of the bridge girder and slab are lower than the design value of that factor. The Weibull shape parameters are decreased, it which means that the bridge performance decreases under dynamic loads effect. The bridge girder and slab\'s frequencies are higher than the design values and constant under different truck speeds.

Key Words
monitoring; bridge; wavelet; safety; dynamic

Address
Mosbeh R. Kaloop:
1) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, Korea
2) Incheon Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea
3) Public Works and Civil Engineering Department, Mansoura University, Egypt
Won Sup Hwang: Department of Civil Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Korea
Emad Elbeltagi: Structural Engineering Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Ashraf Beshr: Public Works and Civil Engineering Department, Mansoura University, Egypt
Jong Wan Hu:
1) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Incheon National University, Korea
2) Incheon Disaster Prevention Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon, Korea


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