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CONTENTS
Volume 45, Number 5, December10 2022
 


Abstract
In the present article, the vibration response of a geometrically imperfect bi-directional functionally graded plate (2D-FGP) with geometric discontinuities and micro-structural defects (porosities) has been investigated. A porosity model has been developed to incorporate the effective material properties of the bi-directional FGP which varies in two directions i.e., along the axial and transverse direction. The geometric discontinuity is also introduced in the plate in the form of a circular cut-out at the center of the plate. The structural kinematic formulation is based on the non-polynomial trigonometric higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT). Finite element formulation is done using C° continuous Lagrangian quadrilateral four-noded element with seven degrees of freedom per node. The equations of motion have been derived using a variational approach. Convergence and validation studies have been documented to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the present formulation. A detailed investigation study has been done to evaluate the influence of the circular cut-out, geometric imperfection, porosity inclusions, partial supports, volume fraction indexes (along with the thickness and length), and geometrical configurations on the vibration response of 2D-FGP. It is concluded that after a particular cut-out dimension, the vibration response of the 2D FGP exhibits non-monotonic behavior.

Key Words
bi-directional functionally graded plates (2D-FGPs); circular cut-outs; geometric imperfection; microstructure defects; partial supports; vibration response

Address
Varun Katiyar, Ankit Gupta:School of Engineering, Shiv Nadar Institution of Eminence, Deemed to be University, Gautama Buddha Nagar, India

Abdelouahed Tounsi:1)YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
2)Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Fluid-conveying tubes are widely used to transport oil and natural gas in industries. As an advanced composite material, functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRC) have great potential to empower the industry. However, nonlinear free vibration of the FG-CNTRC fluid-conveying pipe has not been attempted in thermal environment. In this paper, the nonlinear free vibration characteristic of functionally graded nanocomposite fluid-conveying pipe reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in thermal environment is investigated. The SWCNTs gradient distributed in the thickness direction of the pipe forms different reinforcement patterns. The material properties of the FGCNTRC are estimated by rule of mixture. A higher-order shear deformation theory and Hamilton's variational principle are employed to derive the motion equations incorporating the thermal and fluid effects. A two-step perturbation method is implemented to obtain the closed-form asymptotic solutions for these nonlinear partial differential equations. The nonlinear frequencies under several reinforcement patterns are presented and discussed. We conduct a series of studies aimed at revealing the effects of the flow velocity, the environment temperature, the inner-outer diameter ratio, and the carbon nanotube volume fraction on the nature frequency.

Key Words
carbon nanotube; fluid-conveying pipe; nonlinear vibration; thermal load; two-step perturbation method

Address
Xu Chen, Jing-Lei Zhao, Gui-Lin She, Yan Jing and Jun Luo: College of Mechanical and vehicle Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing,400044, China

Hua-Yan Pu: School of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China


Abstract
This study reports the results of a series of tests of pultruded glass fiber reinforced polymer (P-GFRP) box section composite profile columns, geometrically similar with/without concrete core, containing 0-1-2-3% steel fiber, with different lengths. The recycled steel wires were obtained from waste tyres. The effects ofsteel fiber ratio on the collapse and size effect of concrete filled P-GFRP columns under axial pressure were investigated experimentally and analytically. A total of 36 columns were tested under compression. The presence of pultruded profile and steel wire ratio were selected as the primary variable. The capacity of pultruded profiles with infilled concrete are averagely 9.3 times higher than the capacity of concrete without pultruded profile. The capacity of pultruded profiles with infilled concrete are averagely 34% higher than that of the pultruded profiles without infilled concrete. The effects of steel wire ratio are more pronounced in slender columns which exhibit buckling behavior. Moreover, the proposed analytical approach to calculate the capacity of P-GFRP columns successfully predicted the experimental findings in terms of both pure axial and buckling capacity.

Key Words
buckling; compression; pultruded GFRP; recycled; shear deformation theory; steel wire; waste

Address
Emrah Madenci:Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Civil Engineering, Konya, Turkey

Sabry Fayed:Department of civil engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelshiekh University, Egypt

Walid Mansour:Department of civil engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelshiekh University, Egypt

Yasin Onuralp Ozkili:Necmettin Erbakan University, Department of Civil Engineering, Konya, Turkey

Abstract
In the current study, punching behavior of Reinforced concrete (RC) isolated footings was experimentally and numerically investigated. The experimental program consisted of four half-scale RC isolated footing specimens. The test matrix was proposed to show effect of footing area, reinforcement mesh ratio, adding internal longitudinal reinforcement bars and stirrups on the punching response of RC isolated footings. Footings area varied from 1200x1200 mm2 to 1500x1500 mm2 while the mesh reinforcement ratio was in the range from 0.36 to 0.45%. On the other hand, a 3D non-linear finite element model was constructed using ABAQUS/standard program and verified against the experimental program. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental records. The validated numerical model was used to study effect of concrete compressive strength; longitudinal reinforcement bars ratio and stirrups concentration along one or two directions on the ultimate load, deflection, stiffness and failure patterns of RC isolated footings. Results concluded that adding longitudinal reinforcement bars did not significantly affect the punching response of RC isolated footings even high steel ratios were used. On the contrary, as the stirrups ratio increased, the ultimate load of RC isolated footings increased. Footing with stirrups ratio of 1.5% had ultimate load equal to 1331 kN, 19.6% higher than the bare footing. Moreover, adding stirrups along two directions with lower ratio (0.5 and 0.7%) significantly enhanced the ultimate load of RC isolated footings compared to their counterparts with higher stirrups ratio (1.0 and 1.5%).

Key Words
cracks pattern; experimental study; numerical analysis; punching shear; RC footing; stiffness; strain development

Address
Walid Mansour, Sabry Fayed and Ali Basha:Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Kafrelsheikh University, Box 33511, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt

Abstract
Conventional braces are often used to provide stiffness to structures; however due to buckling they cannot be used as seismic energy dissipating elements. In this study, a seismic energy dissipation device is proposed which is comprised of a bracing member and a steel hysteretic damper made of steel hexagonal plates. The hexagonal shaped designated fuse causes formation of plastic hinges under axial deformation of the brace. The main advantages of this damper compared to conventional metallic dampers and buckling-restrained braces are the stable and controlled energy dissipation capability with ease of manufacture. The mechanical behavior of the damper is formulated first and a design procedure is provided. Next, the theoretical formulation and the efficiency of the damper are verified using finite element (FE) analyses. An analytical model of the damper is established and its efficiency is further investigated by applying it to seismic retrofit of a case study structure. The seismic performance of the structure is evaluated before and after retrofit in terms of maximum interstory drift ratio, top story displacement, residual displacement, and energy dissipation of dampers. Overall, the median of maximum interstory drift ratios is reduced from 3.8% to 1.6% and the residual displacement decreased in the x-direction which corresponds to the predominant mode shape of the structure. The analysis results show that the developed damper can provide cost-effective seismic protection of structures.

Key Words
damping device; energy dissipation device; hysteretic damper; metallic damper; seismic performance; seismic retrofit

Address
Mohammad Mahdi Javidana and Jinkoo Kim: Department of Global Smart City, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In the context of the finite elements method, the dynamic behavior of porous functionally graded double wishbone vehicle suspension structural system incorporating joints flexibility constraints under road bump excitation is studied and analyzed. The functionally graded material properties distribution through the thickness direction is simulated by the power law including the porosity effect. To explore the porosity effects, both classical and adopted porosity models are considered based on even porosity distribution pattern. The dynamic equations of motion are derived based on the Hamiltonian principle. Closed forms of the inertia and material stiffness components are derived. Based on the plane frame isoparametric Timoshenko beam element, the dynamic finite elements equations are developed incorporating joint flexibilities constraints. The Newmark's implicit direct integration methodology is utilized to obtain the transient vibration time response under road bump excitation. The presented procedure is validated by comparing the computational model results with the available numerical solutions and an excellent agreement is observed. Obtained results show that the decrease of porosity percentage and material graduation tends to decrease the deflection as well as the resulting stresses of the control arms thus improving the dynamic performance and increasing the service lifetime of the control arms.

Key Words
classical and adopted porosity models; double wishbone control arm; even porosity pattern; functionally graded materials; joints flexibilities constraints; vehicle suspension

Address
Ayman E. Nabawy, Ayman M.M. Abdelhaleem, Soliman. S. Alieldin and Alaa A. Abdelrahman:Department of Mechanical Design & Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Abstract
Closed steel supports of different shapes are used in mining and underground constructions. The supports are prefabricated from rolled, usually robust, steel profiles. The load carrying capacity of a support is considerably influenced by the active loading and passive forces. The passive forces are induced by interactions between the support and the surrounding rock mass. The analysis herein comprises three parts: The first part consists of structural geometry processing. The second part involves finding the numerical solution of a statically indeterminate structure for a specified load. The third part is calculation of the load carrying capacity and the components of internal forces and deformations. For this, the force method and numerical integration are used. The Winkler model is applied when the support interacts with the surrounding environment. The load carrying capacity is limited by the slip resistance of the connected parts and it is limited by reaching the ultimate state of the profile. This paper serves as a comprehensive reference for the determination of the load carrying capacity of closed steel supports and includes stepwise derivations of the governing formulas.

Key Words
arch; closed support; force method; slip resistance; slippage; steel structure; underground construction; Winkler model; yielding support

Address
Lenka Koubova, Petr Janas, Karel Janas and Martin Krejsa:Department of Structural Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Ludvika Podeste 1875/17, 708 33
Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic

Abstract
The critical buckling loads and buckling modes of bi-directional functionally graded porous unified higher order shear plate with elastic foundation are investigated. A mathematical model based on neutral axis rather than midplane is developed in comprehensive way for the first time in this article. The material constituents form ceramic and metal are graded through thickness and axial direction by the power function distribution. The voids and cavities inside the material are proposed by three different porosity models through the thickness of plate. The constitutive parameters and force resultants are evaluated relative to the neutral axis. Unified higher order shear plate theories are used to satisfy the zero-shear strain/stress at the top and bottom surfaces. The governing equilibrium equations of bi-directional functionally graded porous unified plate (BDFGPUP) are derived by Hamilton's principle. The equilibrium equations in the form of coupled variable coefficients partial differential equations is solved by using numerical differential integral quadrature method (DIQM). The validation of the present model is presented and compared with previous works for bucking. Deviation in buckling loads for both mid-plane and neutral plane are developed and discussed. The numerical results prove that the shear functions, distribution indices, boundary conditions, elastic foundation and porosity type have significant influence on buckling stability of BDFGPUP. The current mathematical model may be used in design and analysis of BDFGPU used in nuclear, mechanical, aerospace, and naval application.

Key Words
bi-directional FGM; buckling stability; differential integral quadrature method; neutral plane; porous material; unified plate theories

Address
Rabab Shanab: Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Salwa Mohamed:Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Mohammed Y. Tharwan:Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, P. O. Box 45142, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Amr E. Assie:1)Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, P. O. Box 45142, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2)Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Mohamed A. Eltaher:1)Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2)Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Abstract
This paper investigates the seismic performance of exposed RCFST column-base joints, in which the high-strength steel bars (USD 685) are set through the column and reinforced concrete foundation without any base plate and anchor bolts. Three specimens with different axial force ratios (n = 0, 0.25, and 0.5) were tested under cyclic loadings. Finite element analysis (FEA) models were validated in the basic indexes and failure mode. The hysteresis behavior of the exposed RCFST columnbase joints was studied by the parametrical analysis including six parameters: width of column (D), width-thickness ratio (D/t), axial force ratio (n), shear-span ratio (L/D), steel tube strength (fy) and concrete strength (fc). The bending moment of the exposed RCFST column-base joint increased with D, fy and fc. But the D/t and L/D play a little effect on the bending capacity of the new column-base joint. Finally, the calculation formula is proposed to assess the bending moment capacities, and the accuracy and stability of the formula are verified.

Key Words
axial force ratio; column base joint; finite element analysis; parametric analysis; ultrahigh-strength steel bar

Address
Ben Mou:School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Environment, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China

Xingchen Yan:School of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China

Qiyun Qiao:College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P.R. China

Wanqiu Zhou:School of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China

Abstract
A geometrically nonlinear stability analysis of sandwich annular plates with cellular core and particle-reinforced composite layers has been performed in the present research. The particles are powders of graphene oxide (GOP) which act as nanoscale filler of epoxy matrix. To this regard, Halpin-Tsai micromechanical scheme has been used to define the material properties of the layers. A square shaped core has been considered for which the material properties have been defined based on the relative density concept. Large deflection theory of thin shells has been selected to develop the complete formulation of sandwich plate. The geometrically nonlinear stability analysis of sandwich annular plates has been carried out by indicating that the buckling load is dependent on particle amount, thickness of layer and core relative density.

Key Words
composite; design; nonlinear stability; numerical; sandwich plate; steel

Address
Ridha A. Ahmed, Nadhim M. Faleh and Raad M. Fenjan:
Al-Mustansiriah University, Engineering Collage P.O. Box 46049, Bab-Muadum, Baghdad 10001, Iraq

Kareem Mohsen Raheef:Ashur University College, Baghdad, Iraq


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