Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search
You logged in as

scs
 
CONTENTS
Volume 45, Number 3, November10 2022
 


Abstract
This article aims to investigate the static deflection and stress analysis of bi-directional functionally graded porous plate (BDFGPP) modeled by unified higher order kinematic theories to include the shear stress effects, which not be considered before. Different shear functions are described according to higher order models that satisfy the zero-shear influence at the top and bottom surfaces, and hence refrain from the need of shear correction factor. The material properties are graded through two spatial directions (i.e., thickness and length directions) according to the power law distribution. The porosities and voids inside the material constituent are described by different cosine functions. Hamilton's principle is implemented to derive the governing equilibrium equation of bi-directional FG porous plate structures. An efficient numerical differential integral quadrature method (DIQM) is exploited to solve the coupled variable coefficients partial differential equations of equilibrium. Problem validation and verification have been proven with previous prestigious work. Numerical results are illustrated to present the significant impacts of kinematic shear relations, gradation indices through thickness and length, porosity type, and boundary conditions on the static deflection and stress distribution of BDFGP plate. The proposed model is efficient in design and analysis of many applications used in nuclear, mechanical, aerospace, naval, dental, and medical fields.

Key Words
bi-directional functional graded; higher order kinematic relations; Numerical DIQM; plate theories; porous structurers; static and stress analyses

Address
Salwa Mohamed and Nazira Mohamed: Department of Engineering Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Amr E. Assie:1)Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, P. O. Box 45142, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2)Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Mohamed A. Eltaher:1)Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2)Department of Mechanical Design and Production, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egyp

Abstract
The main goal of this article is to develop the finite element formulation based on the nonlocal strain gradient and the refined higher-order deformation theory employing a new function f(z) to investigate the static bending and free vibration of functionally graded porous (FGP) nanobeams. The proposed model considers the simultaneous effects of two parameters: nonlocal and strain gradient coefficients. The nanobeam is made by FGP material that exists in un-even and logarithmic-uneven distribution. The governing equation of the nanobeam is established based on Hamilton's principle. The authors use a 2-node beam element, each node with 8 degrees of freedom (DOFs) approximated by the C1 and C2 continuous Hermit functions to obtain the elemental stiffness matrix and mass matrix. The accuracy of the proposed model is tested by comparison with the results of reputable published works. From here, the influences of the parameters: nonlocal elasticity, strain gradient, porosity, and boundary conditions are studied.

Key Words
finite element method; functionally graded porous material; nanobeam; nonlocal strain gradient theory; refined higher-order deformation theory

Address
Quoc-Hoa Pham and Phu-Cuong Nguyen: Advanced Structural Engineering Laboratory, Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City Open
University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Abstract
In this research, an approach combining a semi-analytical method and an analytical method is presented to investigate the static and dynamic post-buckling behavior of the sandwich functionally graded (FG) porous cylindrical shells exposed to external pressure. The sandwich cylindrical shell considered is composed of a viscoelastic core and two FG porous (FGP) face layers. The viscoelastic core is made of Kelvin-Voigt-type material. The material properties of the FG porous face layer are considered continuous through each face thickness according to a porosity coefficient and a volume fraction index. Two types of sandwich FG porous viscoelastic cylindrical shells named Type A and Type B are considered in the research. Type A shell has the porosity evenly distributed across the thickness direction, and Type B has the porosity unevenly distributes across the thickness direction. The FG face layers are considered in two cases: outside metal surface, inside ceramic surface (OMSICS), and inside metal surface, outside ceramic surface (IMS-OCS). According to Donnell shell theory, von-Kármán equation, and Galerkin's method, a discretized nonlinear governing equation is derived for analyzing the behavior of the shells. The explicit expressions for static and dynamic critical buckling loading are thus developed. To study the dynamic buckling of the shells, the governing equation is examined via a numerical approach implementing the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. With a procedure presented by Budiansky-Roth, the critical load for dynamic post-buckling is obtained. The effects of various parameters, such as material and geometrical parameters, on the post-buckling behaviors are investigated.

Key Words
sandwich cylindrical shells; FG porous material; viscoelastic core; static and dynamic post-buckling; external pressure

Address
Kamran Foroutan and Liming Dai:Industrial Systems Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada

Abstract
Composite effect between steel and recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) in steel reinforced-RAC (SRRAC) structures can effectively improve RAC's adverse mechanical properties due to the natural defects of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA). However, the performance of SRRAC after thermal exposure will have a great impact on the safety of the structure. In this paper, firstly, the mechanical properties of SRRAC structures after high temperatures exposure were tested, including 24 SRRAC columns and 32 SRRAC beams. Then, the change rules of beams and columns performance with the maximum temperature and replacement percentage were compared. Finally, the formulas to evaluate the residual bearing capacity of SRRAC beams and columns after exposure to high temperatures were established. The experimental results show that the maximum exposure temperature can be judged by the apparent phenomenon and mass loss ratio of RAC. After high temperatures exposure, the mechanical properties of SRRAC beams and columns change significantly, where the degradation of bearing capacity and stiffness is the most obvious. Moreover, it is found that the degradation degree of compression member is more serious than that of flexural member. The formulas of residual bearing capacity established by introducing influence coefficient of material strength agree well with the experimental results.

Key Words
beam and column; high temperatures; performance degradation; residual bearing capacity; steel reinforced recycled aggregate concrete

Address
Ji Zhou and Peihuan Ye: College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, P.R. China

Zongping Chen:1)College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, P.R. China
2)College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Nanning University, Nanning 530200, China
3)Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention and Structure Safety of Chinese Ministry of Education, Guangxi University,
Nanning 530004, P.R. China

Chunheng Zhou:School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, P.R. China

Wei Zheng:College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P.R. China

Abstract
Residual capacity is defined as the load carrying capacity of an RC column after undergoing severe damage. Evaluation of residual capacity of RC columns is necessary to avoid damage initiation in RC structures. The central aspect of the current research is to propose an empirical formula to estimate the residual capacity of RC columns after undergoing severe damage. This formula facilitates decision making of whether a replacement or a repair of the damaged column is adequate for further use. Available literature mainly focused on the simulation of explosion loads by using simplified pressure time histories to develop residual capacity of RC columns and rarely simulated the actual explosive. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature concerning general relation between blast damage of columns with different explosive loading conditions for a reliable and quick evaluation of column behavior subjected to blast loading. In this paper, the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique is implemented to simulate high fidelity blast pressure propagations. LS-DYNA software is utilized to solve the finite element (FE) model. The FE model is validated against the practical blast tests, and outcomes are in good agreement with test results. Multivariate linear regression (MLR) method is utilized to derive an analytical formula. The analytical formula predicts the residual capacity of RC columns as functions of structural element parameters. Based on intensive numerical simulation data, it is found that column depth, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, concrete strength and column width have significant effects on the residual axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete column under blast loads. Increasing column depth and longitudinal reinforcement ratio that provides better confinement to concrete are very effective in the residual capacity of RC column subjected to blast loads. Data obtained with this study can broaden the knowledge of structural response to blast and improve FE models to simulate the blast performance of concrete structures.

Key Words
Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian; blast load; LS-DYNA; residual axial load carrying capacity

Address
Masoud Abedini and Chunwei Zhang:Multidisciplinary Center for Infrastructure Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, China

Abstract
Nowadays, there is a high demand for great structural implementation and multifunctionality with excellent mechanical properties. The porous structures reinforced by graphene platelets (GPLs) having valuable properties, such as heat resistance, lightweight, and excellent energy absorption, have been considerably used in different engineering implementations. However, stiffness of porous structures reduces significantly, due to the internal cavities, by adding GPLs into porous medium, effective mechanical properties of the porous structure considerably enhance. This paper is relating to vibration analysis of fluidconveying cantilever porous graphene platelet reinforced (GPLR) pipe with fractional viscoelastic model resting on foundations. A dynamical model of cantilever porous GPLR pipes conveying fluid and resting on a foundation is proposed, and the vibration, natural frequencies and primary resonant of such a system are explored. The pipe body is considered to be composed of GPLR viscoelastic polymeric pipe with porosity in which Halpin-Tsai scheme in conjunction with the fractional viscoelastic model is used to govern the construction relation of nanocomposite pipe. Three different porosity distributions through the pipe thickness are introduced. The harmonic concentrated force is also applied to the pipe and the excitation frequency is close to the first natural frequency. The governing equation for transverse motions of the pipe is derived by the Hamilton principle and then discretized by the Galerkin procedure. In order to obtain the frequency-response equation, the differential equation is solved with the assumption of small displacement, damping coefficient, and excitation amplitude by the multiple scale method. A parametric sensitivity analysis is carried out to reveal the influence of different parameters, such as nanocomposite pipe properties, fluid velocity and nonlinear viscoelastic foundation coefficients, on the primary resonance and linear natural frequency. Results indicate that the GPLs weight fraction porosity coefficient, fractional derivative order and the retardation time have substantial influences on the dynamic response of the system.

Key Words
cantilever pipe; external loads; fluid-conveying; fractional viscoelastic model; nonlinear foundation; primary resonance

Address
Qinghua Huang, Xinping Yu and Jun Lv:School of Intelligent Manufacturing,Zhejiang Guangsha Vocational and Technical University of Construction, Dongyang, 322100, China

Jilie Zhou:School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China

Marischa Ray Elvenia:Nabi Data Science & Computational Intelligence Research Co., Iran

Abstract
The mechanical behaviors of the prefabricated steel-concrete composite beams are usually affected by the strength and the number of shear studs. Furthermore, the discrete degree of the arrangement for shear stud clusters, being defined as the clustering degree of shear stud λ in this paper, is an important factor for the mechanical properties of composite beams, even if the shear connection degree is unchanged. This paper uses an experimental and calculation method to investigate the influence of λ on the mechanical behavior of the composite beam. Five specimens (with different λ but having the same shear connection degree) of prefabricated composite beams are designed to study the ultimate supporting capacity, deformation, slip and shearing stiffness of composite beams. Experimental results are compared with the conventional slip calculation method (based on the influence of λ) of prefabricated composite beams. The results showed that the stiffness in the elastoplastic stage is reduced when λ is greater than 0.333, while the supporting capacity of beams has little affected by the change in λ. The slip distribution along the beam length tends to be zig-zagged due to the clustering of studs, and the slip difference increases with the increase of λ.

Key Words
beam test; degree of shear studs clustering; prefabricated steel-concrete composite beam; shear studs cluster; slip calculation method

Address
Yanmei Gao and Liang Fan:1)Department of Bridge Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
2)State Key Laboratory of Mountain Bridge and Tunnel Engineering

Weipeng Yang:Mianzhu Municipal Bureau of Communication, Deyang, 618200, China

Lu Shi:Xiangyang Municipal Engineering Design Institute Co. LTD, Xiangyang, 441000, China

Dan Zhou:Zhejiang Highway Technicians College, Hangzhou 310023, China

Ming Wang:Department of Bridge Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, 610031 Chengdu, Sichuan, China


Abstract
Elliptic-braced simple resisting frame as a new lateral bracing system installed in the middle bay of frame in building facades has been recently introduced. This system not only creates a problem for opening space from the architectural viewpoint but also improves the structural behavior. Despite the researches on the seismic performance of lateral bracing systems, there are few studies performed on the effect of the stiffness parameters on the elastic story drift and calculation of period in simple braced steel frames. To overcome this shortcoming, in this paper, for the first time, an analytical solution is presented for calculating elastic lateral stiffness in a simple steel frame equipped with elliptic brace subjected to lateral load. In addition, for the first time, in this study, a precise formulation has been developed to evaluate the elastic stiffness variation in a steel frame equipped with a two-dimensional single-story single-span elliptic brace using strain energy and Castigliano's theorem. Thus, all the effective factors, including axial and shear loads as well as bending moments of elliptic brace could be considered. At the end of the analysis, the lateral stiffness can be calculated by an improved and innovative relation through the energy method based on the geometrical properties of the employed sections and specification of the used material. Also, an equivalent element of an elliptic brace was presented for the ease of modeling and use in linear designs. Application of the proposed relation have been verified through a variety of examples in OpenSees software. Based on the results, the error percentage between the elastic stiffness derived from the developed equations and the numerical analyses of finite element models was very low and negligible.

Key Words
castigliano's theorem; elastic lateral stiffness; elliptic braced simple frame; finite element; numerical analysis; strain energy

Address
Habib Ghasemi Jouneghani:School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia

Nader Fanaie:Department of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abbas Haghollahi:Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Despite the considerable lateral stiffness and strength of the Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF), it suffers from low ductility and low seismic dissipating energy capacity. The buckling of the diagonal members of the CBF systems under cyclic loading ended up to the shortcoming against seismic loading. Comprehensive researches have been performing to achieve helpful approaches to prevent the buckling of the diagonal member. Among the recommended ideas, metallic damper revealed a better success than other ideas to enhance the behavior of CBFs. While metallic dampers improve the behavior of the CBF system, they increase constructional costs. Therefore, in this paper, a new steel damper with flexural mechanism is proposed, which is investigated experimentally and numerically. Also, a parametrical revision was carried out to evaluate the effect of thickness, slenderness ratio, angle of the main plate, and height of the main plates on the proposed damper. For the parametrical study, 45 finite element models were analyzed and considered. Experimental results, as well as the numerical results, indicated that the proposed damper enjoys a stable hysteresis loop without any degradation up to a high rotation equal to around 31% that is significantly considerable. Moreover, it showed a suitable performance in case of ductility and energy dissipating. Besides, the necessary formulas to design the damper, the required relations were proposed to design the elements outside the damper to ensure the damper acts as a ductile fuse.

Key Words
buckling; Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF); steel plate-based damper; stiffness; strength

Address
Ali Ghamari:Department of Civil Engineering, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ilam, Iran

Seong‐Hoon Jeong:Department of Architectural Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea

Abstract
One of the major failure modes in composite sandwich structures is the separation between skins and core. In this study, the effect of employing foam filled composite corrugated core on the skin/core debonding (resistance to separation between skin and core) is investigated both experimentally and numerically. To this aim, triangular corrugated core specimens are manufactured and compared with reference specimens only made of PVC foam core in terms of skin/core debonding under bending loading. The corrugated composite laminates are fabricated using the hand layup method. Also, the Vacuumed Infusion Process (VIP) is employed to join the skins to the core with greater quality. Utilizing an End Notched Shear (ENS) fixture, three point bending tests are performed on the manufactured sandwich composite panels. The results reveal that the resistance to separation capacity and flexural stiffness of sandwich composite has been increased about 170% and 76%, respectively by using a triangular corrugated core. The Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) with appropriate cohesive law in ABAQUS finite element software is used to model the progressive face/core interfaces debonding the difference between experimental and numerical results in predicting the maximum born load before the skin/core separation is about 6 % in simple core specimens and 3% in triangular corrugated core specimens.

Key Words
cohesive zone model; composite; corrugated core; sandwich panels; woven fiber glass

Address
Hossein Malekinejadbahabadi, Amin Farrokhabadi and Gholam H Rahimi:Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Amin Nazerigivi:Rock Mechanics Division, School of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2022 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-2-736-6800 (SCS, EAS, WAS, ANR) +82-42-828-7995 (GAE, SEM, SSS, CAC) Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: info@techno-press.com