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Volume 1, Number 3, July 2016

The formation of silicon-on-nothing (SON) structure during an annealing process from the silicon substrate including the trench structures has been considered as an effective technique to construct the structure that has an empty space under the closed flat surface. Previous studies have demonstrated the mechanism of the formation of SON structure, which is based on the surface diffusion driven by the minimization of their surface energy. Also, it has been fragmentarily shown that the morphology of SON structure can be affected by the initial design of trench (e.g., size, number) and the annealing conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure). Based on the previous studies, here, we report a comprehensive study for the design of the cavity-embedded structure (i.e., SON structure). To do this, a dynamic model has been developed with the phase field approach. The simulation results represent that the morphology of SON structures could be detailedly designed, for example the position and thickness of cavity, the thickness of top and bottom layer, according to the design parameters. This study will give us an advantage in the effective design of SON structures.

Key Words
SON structure; morphological design; phase field model; multi-physics analysis

Jihwan Song and Dongchoul Kim:1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, 121-742, Korea

Linan Zhang: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018, China

The longitudinal velocity (forward speed) having significant importance in proper running of railway wheelset on track, depends greatly upon the adhesion ratio and creep analysis by implementation of suitable dynamic systemon contamination. The wet track condition causes slip and slide of vehicle on railway tracking, whereas high speedmay also increase slip and skidding to severewear and deterioration ofmechanical parts. The basic aimof this research is to design appropriatemodel aimed estimator that can be used to control railway vehicle forward velocity to avoid slip. For the filtration of disturbance procured during running of vehicle, the kalman filter is applied to estimate the actual signal on preferered samples of creep co-efficient for observing the applied attitude of noise. Thus error level is detected on higher and lower co-efficient of creep to analyze adhesion to avoid slip and sliding. The skidding is usually occurred due to higher forward speed owing to procured disturbance. This paper guides to minimize the noise and error based upon creep coefficient.

Key Words
longitudinal speed; adhesion; creep coefficient; kalman filter; tractive force

Zulfiqar Ali Soomro: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engg; Science &Tech;
Nawabshah, Pakistan

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