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CONTENTS
Volume 17, Number 6, April30 2019
 

Abstract
Reinforced soil and Expanded Polystyrenes (EPS) mixture (RSEM) is a geomaterial which has many merits, such as light weight, wide strength range, easy for construction, and economic feasibility. It has been widely applied to improve soft ground, solve bridge head jump, fill cavity in pipeline and widen highway. Reutilizing dredged sediment to produce RSEM as earthfill can not only consume a large amount of waste sediment but also significantly reduce the construction cost. Therefore, there is an urgent need understand the basic stress-strain characteristics of reinforced dredged sediment-EPS mixture (RDSEM). A series of cyclic triaxial tests were then carried out on the RDSEM and control clay. The effects of cement content, EPS beads content and confining pressure on the cyclic stress-strain behaviour of RDSEM were analyzed. It is found that the three stages of dynamic stress-strain relationship of ordinary soil, vibration compaction stage, vibration shear stage and vibration failure stage are also applicative for RDSEM. The cyclic stress-strain curves of RDSEM are lower than that of control clay in the vibration compaction stage because of its high moisture content. The slopes of backbone curves of RDSEMs in the vibration shear stage are larger than that of control clay, indicating that the existence of EPS beads provides plastic resistance. With the increase of cement content, the cyclic stress-strain relationship tends to be steeper. Increasing cement content and confining pressure could improve the cyclic strength and cyclic stiffness of RDSEM.

Key Words
cyclic; stress; strain; constitution; sediment

Address
Yundong Zhou and Ruiming Tong: Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Geomechanics and Embankment Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China

Mingdong Li: School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, East China University of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, China

Kejun Wen: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, 39217, U.S.A.

Abstract
The calculation of active earth pressure behind retaining wall is a typical three-dimensional (3D) problem with spatial effects. With the help of limit analysis, this paper firstly deduces the internal energy dissipation power equations and various external forces power equations of the 3D retaining wall under the nonlinear strength condition, such as to establish the work-energy balance equation. The pseudo-static method is used to consider the effect of earthquake on active earth pressure in horizontal state. The failure mode is a 3D curvilinear cone failure mechanism. For the different width of the retaining wall, the plane strain block is inserted in the symmetric plane. By optimizing all parameters, the maximum value of active earth pressure is calculated. In order to verify the validity of the new expressions obtained by the paper, the solutions are compared with previously published solutions. Agreement shows that the new expressions are effective. The results of different parameters are given in the forms of figures to analysis the influence caused by nonlinear strength parameters.

Key Words
limit analysis; nonlinear yield criterion; 3D active earth pressure; earthquakes

Address
D.B. Zhang: Work Safety Key Lab on Prevention and Control of Gas and Roof Disasters for Southern Coal Mines, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Safe Mining Techniques of Coal Mines, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201, China

Y. Jiang and X.L. Yang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Hunan 410075, China

Abstract
There have been developed a number of methods to assess the abrasivity of rock materials with the increased use of mechanized rock excavation. These methods range from determination of abrasive and hard mineral content using petrographic thin section analysis to weight loss or development of wear flat on a specified cutting tool. The Cerchar abrasivity index (CAI) test has been widely accepted for the assessment of rock abrasiveness. This test has been considered to provide a reliable indication of rock abrasiveness for isotropic rocks. However, a great amount of rocks in nature are anisotropic. Hence, viability assessment of Cerchar abrasivity test for the anisotropic rocks is investigated in this research. The relationship between CAI value and quartz content for the isotropic rocks is well known in literature. However, a correlation between EQ, F-Schimazek value, Rock Abrasivity Index (RAI) and CAI of anisotropic rocks such as phyllite was done first time in literature with this research. The results obtained with this research show F-Schimazek values and RAI values should be considered when determination of the abrasivity of anisotropic rocks instead of just using Cerchar scratch test.

Key Words
cerchar test, CAI of rocks, RAI of rocks, F-Schimazek index

Address
Nazife Erarslan: 1.) Mining and Mineral Processing Engineering Department, Adana Science and Technology University, Turkey
2.) The University of Queensland, Geotechnical Engineering Centre, QLD, Australia


Abstract
Combining the radial well drilling and hydraulic fracturing technique, the production capacity of the reservoirs with low-permeability can be improved effectively. Due to the existence of radial holes, the stress around the well is redistributed, and the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fractures are different with those in traditional hydraulic fracturing. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influences of radial horizontal wells on hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiment was conducted to simulate the hydraulic fracturing on the physical model with radial holes. The experimental results showed that, compared with the borehole without radial holes, the sample with radial hole in the direction of maximum horizontal stress was fractured with significantly lower pressure. As the angle between direction of the horizontal hole and the maximum horizontal stress increased, the breakdown pressure grew. While when the radial hole was drilled towards the direction of the minimum horizontal stress, the breakdown pressure increased to that needed in the borehole without radial holes. When the angle between the radial hole and the maximum horizontal stress increase, the pressure required to propagate the fractures grew apparently, and the fracture become complex. Meanwhile, the deeper the radial hole drilled, the less the pressure was needed for fracturing.

Key Words
hydraulic fracturing; breakdown pressure; radial horizontal well; rock mechanics; experimental study

Address
Chuanliang Yan, Xu Ren, Yuanfang Cheng, Yang Li and Qingchao Li: School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), China

Kai Zhao: College of Petroleum Engineering, Xi\'an Shiyou University, China

Fucheng Deng: School of Mechanical Engineering, Yangtze University, China

Qimin Liang: Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC, China

Jincheng Zhang: Sinopec Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, 100101, China

Abstract
In China, serious environmental problems are induced by the extremely soft construction waste slurries in many urban areas, and there is no appropriate method to treat it presently. In this paper, four model tests were conducted to investigate the efficiency of waste slurry treatment by combining three conditioning agents which can change characteristics of the slurries with a traditional vacuum preloading method. The tests of size analysis of particle aggregate were conducted to investigate the influence of different conditioning agents on the size distributions of particle aggregate. During the model test, the discharged water volumes were monitored. The pore-size distribution and void ratio of the waste slurries after the vacuum preloading were measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). It is found that 1) During the natural precipitation, volume of water out of the organic agent is higher than that of the mixed agent, but it is smaller than that of the mixed agent in the vacuum preloading stage; 2) the mixed agent has a higher total volume of water out than the organic agent and the inorganic agent after test, while the organic agent and the inorganic agent have little difference with respect to the drainage effect. The results demonstrate that the combination of mixed conditioning agent and vacuum preloading for the solid-liquid separation in waste slurry has a satisfactory effect and can be applied in engineering practice.

Key Words
conditioning agent; flocculation; skeleton effect; vacuum preloading; waste slurry

Address
Yajun Wu, Haibo Jiang and Dean Sun: Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, BaoShan District, Shanghai, China

Yitian Lu: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Saga University, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga City, Saga, Japan

Abstract
This paper presents experimental results of rock-concrete bi-material discs under cyclically diametrical compression. It was found that both specimens under cyclical and static loading failed in three typical modes: shear crack, tensile crack and a combined mode of shear and wing crack. The failure modes transited gradually from the shear crack to the tensile one by increasing the interface angle between the interface and the loading direction. The cycle number and peak load increased by increasing the interface angle. The number of cycles and peak load increased with the interface groove depth and groove width, however, decreased with increase in interface groove spacing. The concrete strength can contribute more to the cycle number and peak load for specimens with a higher interface angle. Compared with the discs under static loading, the cyclically loaded discs had a lower peak load but a larger deformation. Finally, the effects of interface angle, interface asperity and concrete strength on the fatigue strength were also discussed.

Key Words
rock-concrete disc; cyclic loading; crack patterns; nominal tensile strength

Address
Xu Chang, Tengfei Guo and Hui Wang: School of Civil Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China

Jianyou Lu: China Construction Shenzhen Decoration Co., Ltd, China

Abstract
Spatial variability is an inherent characteristic of soil, and auto-correlation length (ACL) is a very important parameter in the reliability or probabilistic analyses of geotechnical engineering that consider the spatial variability of soils. Current methods for estimating the ACL need a large amount of laboratory or in-situ experiments, which is a great obstacle to the application of random field theory to geotechnical reliability analysis and design. To estimate the ACL reasonably and efficiently, we propose a micro-structure based numerical simulation method. The quartet structure generation set algorithm is used to generate stochastic numerical micro-structure of soils, and scanning electron microscope test of soil samples combined with digital image processing technique is adopted to obtain parameters needed in the QSGS algorithm. Then, 2-point correlation function is adopted to calculate the ACL based on the generated numerical micro-structure of soils. Results of a case study shows that the ACL can be estimated efficiently using the proposed method. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the ACL will become stable with the increase of mesh density and model size. A model size of 300 x 300 with a grid size of 1 x 1 is suitable for the calculation of the ACL of clayey soils.

Key Words
auto-correlation length (ACL); quartet structure generation set (QSGS); scanning electron microscope (SEM); digital image processing (DIP); numerical simulation; spatial variability; correlation function

Address
Suozhu Fei, Xiaohui Tan, Linfeng Du and Zhihao Sun: School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China

Xue Wang: Gaoyou Architectural Design Institute, Gaoyou, 225600, China

Abstract
Excavation of underground cavern and shaft was proposed for the construction of a ventilation facility in an urban area. A shaft connects the street-level air plenum to an underground cavern, which extends down approximately 46 m below the street surface. At the project site, the rock mass was relatively strong and well-defined joint sets were present. A kinematic block stability analysis was first performed to estimate the required reinforcement system. Then a 3-D discontinuum numerical analysis was conducted to evaluate the capacity of the initial support and the overall stability of the required excavation, followed by a 3-D continuum numerical analysis to complement the calculated result. This paper illustrates the application of detailed numerical analyses to the design of the required initial support system for the stability of underground hard rock mining at a relatively shallow depth.

Key Words
underground cavern; kinematic block stability; 3-D discontinuum numerical analysis; 3-D continuum numerical analysis; hard rock mining

Address
Joung Oh and Ismet Canbulat: School of Minerals and Energy Resources Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

Taehyun Moon: Geotechnical and Tunneling Division, HNTB, Empire State Building 57th FL, New York, NY 10119, U.S.A.

Joon-Shik Moon: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea

Abstract
In this paper, a comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response of a long-bridge subjected to spatially varying earthquake ground motions (SVEGM) is performed based on a proposed analytical model which includes the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI). The spatial variability of ground motions is simulated by the powerful record generator, SIMQKE II. Modeling of the SSI in the system is simplified by replacing the pile foundations and soil with sets of independent equivalent linear springs and dashpots along the pile groups. One of the most fundamental objectives of this study is to examine how well the proposed model simulates the dynamic response of a bridge system. For this purpose, the baseline data required for the evaluation process is derived from analyzing a 3D numerical model of the bridge system which is validated in this paper. To emphasize the importance of the SVEGM and SSI, bridge responses are also determined for the uniform ground motion and fixed base cases. This study proposing a compatible analytical model concerns the relative importance of the SSI and SVEGM and shows that these effects cannot be neglected in the seismic analysis of long-bridges.

Key Words
SVEGM; SSI; dynamic response; long bridges; seismic analysis

Address
Shima Sadat Hoseini, Ali Ghanbari and Milad Kamal: Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi University, Moffateh Avenue, Tehran, Iran

Mohammad Davoodi:Department of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) techniques are useful methods for non-destructive evaluation of fracture characteristics. This study focuses on the reliability and accuracy of ultrasonic diffraction methods to estimate the depth of rock fractures. The study material includes three different rock types; andesite, basalt and ignimbrite. Four different ultrasonic techniques were performed on these intact rocks. Artificial near-surface fracture depths were created in the laboratory by sawing. The reliability and accuracy of each technique was assessed by comparison of the repeated measurements at different path lengths along the rock surface. The standard error associated with the predictive equations is very small and their reliability and accuracy seem to be high enough to be utilized in estimating the depth of rock fractures. The performances of these techniques were re-evaluated after filling the artificial fractures with another material to simulate natural infills.

Key Words
fracture mechanics; laboratory analysis; material nonlinearities; rock; rock fills

Address
Levent Selçuk: Van Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geological Engineering, Van/Tuşba, 65080, Turkey


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