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CONTENTS
Volume 7, Number 3, July 2022
 


Abstract
In modern buildings, glass is considered a structurally unsafe material due to its brittleness and unpredictable failure behavior. The possible use of structural glass elements (i.e., floors, beams and columns) is generally prevented by its poor tensile strength and a frequent occurrence of brittle failures. In this study an innovative modelling based on an equivalent thickness concept of laminated glass beam reinforced with FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) composite material and of glass plates punched is presented. In particular, the novel numerical modelling applied to an embedding Carbon FRP-rod in the interlayer of a laminated structural glass beam is considered in order to increase both its failure strength, together with its post-failure strength and ductility. The proposed equivalent modelling of different specimens enables us to carefully evaluate the effects of this reinforcement. Both the responses of the reinforced beam and un-reinforced one are evaluated, and the corresponding results are compared and discussed. A novel equivalent modelling for reinforced glass beams using FRP composites is presented for FEM analyses in modern material components and proved estimations of the expected performance are provided. Moreover, the new suggested numerical analysis is also applied to laminated glass plates with wide holes at both ends for the technological reasons necessary to connect a glass beam to a structure. Obtained results are compared with an integer specimen. Experimental considerations are reported.

Key Words
carbon FRP-rod; laminated glass plate; reinforced glass beam; structural glass modelling

Address
Dora Foti: Department of Sciences of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Leonarda Carnimeo: Department of Electrical & Information Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Michela Lerna: Department of Sciences of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Maria Francesca Sabbà: Department of Sciences of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Polytechnic University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

Abstract
Deployable structures have the ability to shift from a compact state to an expanded functional configuration. By extension, reconfigurability is another function that relies on embedded computation and actuators. Linkage-based mechanisms constitute promising systems in the development of deployable and reconfigurable structures with high flexibility and controllability. The present paper investigates the deployment and reconfigurability of modular linkage structures with a pin and a sliding support, the latter connected to a linear motion actuator. An appropriate control sequence consists of stepwise reconfigurations that involve the selective releasing of one intermediate joint in each closed-loop linkage, effectively reducing it to a 1-DOF “effective crank–slider” mechanism. This approach enables low self-weight and reduced energy consumption. A kinematics and finite-element analysis of different linkage systems, in all intermediate reconfiguration steps of a sequence, have been conducted for different lengths and geometrical characteristics of the members, as well as different actuation methods, i.e., direct and cable-driven actuation. The study provides insight into the impact of various structural typological and geometrical factors on the systems' behavior.

Key Words
deployable structures; effective crank-slider method; finite-element analysis; linkage structures; motion planning; reconfigurable structures element analysis of different linkage systems, in all intermediate reconfiguration steps of a sequence, have been conducted for different lengths and geometrical characteristics of the members, as well as different actuation methods, i.e., direct and cable-driven actuation. The study provides insight into the impact of various structural typological and geometrical factors on the systems

Address
Marios C. Phocas: Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Str., P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
Niki Georgiou: Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Str., P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus
Eftychios G. Christoforou: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Str., P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus

Abstract
In this research, the size-dependent impact of an embedded piezoelectric nanoplate subjected to in-plane loading on free vibration characteristic is studied. The foundation is two-parameter viscoelastic. The nonlocal elasticity is employed in order to capture the influence of size of the plate. By utilizing Hamilton's principle as well as the first- order shear deformation theory, the governing equation and boundary conditions are achieved. Then, using Navier method the equations associated with the free vibration of a plate constructed piezoelectric material under in-plane loads are solved analytically. The presented formulation and solution procedure are validated using other papers. Also, the impacts of nonlocal parameter, mode number, constant of spring, electric potential, and geometry of the nanoplate on the vibrational frequency are examined. As this paper is the first research in which the vibration associated with piezoelectric nanoplate on the basis of FSDT and nonlocal elasticity is investigated analytically, this results can be used in future investigation in this area.

Key Words
first order shear deformation theory; nanoplate; nonlocal theory; piezoelectric materials; vibration

Address
Zhonghua Luo: School of Electronics and Information, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330044, Jiangxi, China
Xiaoling Cheng: School of Electronics and Information, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330044, Jiangxi, China
Yuhan Yang: School of Electronics and Information, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330044, Jiangxi, China

Abstract
In 2017, an intraplate earthquake of Mw 7.1 occurred 120 km from Mexico City (CDMX). Most collapsed structural buildings stroked by the earthquake were flat slab systems joined to reinforced concrete (RC) columns, unreinforced masonry, confined masonry, and dual systems. This article presents the simulated response of an actual six-story RC frame building with masonry infill walls that did not collapse during the 2017 earthquake. It has a structural system similar to that of many of the collapsed buildings and is located in a high seismic amplification zone. Five 3D numerical models were used in the study to model the seismic response of the building. The building dynamic properties were identified using an ambient vibration test (AVT), enabling validation of the building's finite element models. Several assumptions were made to calibrate the numerical model to the properties identified from the AVT, such as the presence of adjacent buildings, variations in masonry properties, soil-foundation-structure interaction, and the contribution of non-structural elements. The results showed that the infill masonry wall would act as a compression strut and crack along the transverse direction because the shear stresses in the original model (0.85 MPa) exceeded the shear strength (0.38 MPa). In compression, the strut presents lower stresses (3.42 MPa) well below its capacity (6.8 MPa). Although the non-structural elements were not considered to be part of the lateral resistant system, the results showed that these elements could contribute by resisting part of the base shear force, reaching a force of 82 kN.

Key Words
ambient vibration test; infill wall; masonry; Mexico earthquake; nonlinear model; RC frame

Address
Tania C. Albornoz: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile
Leonardo M. Massone: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile
Julian Carrillo: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, UMNG, Cra. 11, Bogotá, Colombia
Francisco Hernández: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile
Yolanda Alberto: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Chile, Blanco Encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile

Abstract
This study investigated and predicted the Marshall stability of glass-fiber asphalt mix, carbon-fiber asphalt mix and glass-carbon-fiber asphalt (hybrid) mix by using machine learning techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), The data was obtained from the experiments and the research articles. Assessment of results indicated that performance of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model outperformed applied models in training and testing datasets with values of indices as; coefficient of correlation (CC) 0.8492 and 0.8234, mean absolute error (MAE) 2.0999 and 2.5408, root mean squared error (RMSE) 2.8541 and 3.3165, relative absolute error (RAE) 48.16% and 54.05%, relative squared error (RRSE) 53.14% and 57.39%, Willmott's index (WI) 0.7490 and 0.7011, Scattering index (SI) 0.4134 and 0.3702 and BIAS 0.3020 and 0.4300 for both training and testing stages respectively. The Taylor diagram also confirms that the ANN-based model outperforms the other models. Results of sensitivity analysis show that Carbon fiber has a major influence in predicting the Marshall stability. However, the carbon fiber (CF) followed by glass-carbon fiber (50GF:50CF) and the optimal combination CF + (50GF:50CF) are found to be most sensitive in predicting the Marshall stability of fibrous asphalt concrete.

Key Words
artificial neural network; carbon fiber; glass fiber; marshall stability; random forest; support vector machine

Address
Ankita Upadhya: Department of Civil Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Zip Code 173229, India
M.S. Thakur: Department of Civil Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Zip Code 173229, India
Nitisha Sharma: Department of Civil Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Zip Code 173229, India
Fadi H. Almohammed: Department of Civil Engineering, Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, Zip Code 173229, India
Parveen Sihag: Department of Civil Engineering, Chandigarh University, Ajitgarh, Punjab, 140413, India




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