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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 1, January 2020
 

Abstract
Soil is the fundamental element in the construction process. Soil problems affect the safety of the structures, even so the high quality of the structures and so, bad soil found the structures will affect the lifetime or even destroy the structures built on it. Therefore, the study of soil is an important step in the construction process and the investigation of the most effective characteristics of a special kind of soil (shale soil), i.e. Atterberg limits, swelling pressure, swelling potential and unconfined compression strength, are the most effective soil properties. A big projects will be constructed in new urban extension areas with expansive shale soils, like at Al-Kawamil and new Akhmim shale soils which associated with soil problems, treatment system should be used to ensure the stability of the soil under the structures foundations one of the most effective methods is by adding lime solution to the soil by specific quantities, which affect on the properties of the shale soil by decreasing the swelling and increasing the compressive strength of the treatment soils. Experimenting with the soil added to the lime, it was found that the addition of lime solution 6% improve c j the properties of the soil. The results of the tests showed the high effectiveness of using lime in the treatment of Al-Kawamil soil.

Key Words
expansive soil; hydrated lime; unconfined compressive strength; heave; swelling pressure; swelling potential; Egyptian code

Address
Ahmed Abdelraheem Farghaly and Fatma Hamdy: Department of Civil and Architectural Constructions, Faculty of Industrial Education,
Sohag University, 8252, Egypt
A. El-Shater: Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524, Egypt
Mostafa Abdou Abdel Naiem: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, 71515, Egypt


Abstract
As small size and complex metal machining components demand increases, cutting processes in microscale become necessary. Ball-end milling is a commonly used finishing process, which nowadays can be applied in the microscale size. Surface quality and dimensional accuracy are two basic parameters that affect small size components in their assembly and functionality. Thus, good quality can be achieved by optimizing the cutting conditions of the procedure. This study presents a 3D simulation model of ball-end milling in microscale developed in a commercial CAD software and its optical and computing results. These carried out results are resumed to surface topomorphy, surface roughness, chip geometry and cutting forces calculations that arising during the cutting process. A great number of simulations were performed in a milling machine centre, applying the discretized kinematics of the procedure and the final results were compared with measurements of Al7075-T651 experiments.

Key Words
micro-ball-end milling; CAD-based simulation; surface topomorphy; surface roughness; chip formation; cutting forces

Address
Dimitrios G. Vakondios: Department of Product & System Design Engineering, University of the Aegean,
Syros Island GR84100, Greece
Panagiotis Kyratsis: Department of Industrial Design Engineering, University of Western Macedonia,
GR50100 Kila Kozani, Greece

Abstract
One of the prevailing structural systems in high-rise buildings is the core-wall system. On the other hand, the existence of one or more underground stories causes the perimeter below-grade walls with the diaphragm of grade level to constitute of a very stiff box. In this case or a similar situation, during the lateral response of a tall building, underground perimeter walls and diaphragms that provide an increased lateral resistance relative to the core wall may introduce a prying action in the core that is called backstay effect. In this case, a rather great force is generated at the diaphragm of the grade-level, acting in a reverse direction to the lateral force on the core-wall system, and thus typically causes a reverse internal shear. In this research, in addition to review of the results of the preceding studies, an improved relationship is proposed for prediction of backstay force. The new proposed relationship takes into account the effect of foundation flexibility and is presented in a non-dimensional form. Furthermore, a specific range of the backstay force to lateral load ratio has been determined. And finally, it is shown that although all suggested formulas are valid in the elastic domain, yet with some changes in the initial considerations, they can be applied to some certain non-linear problems as well.

Key Words
backstay effect; core-wall; concrete box; stiffness ratio; shear deformation; foundation flexibility

Address
Mahdi Karimi, Ali Kheyroddin: Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Hashem Shariatmadar: Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract
For the first time, an accurate analytical solution, based on coupled three-dimensional (3D) piezoelasticity equations, is presented for free vibration analysis of the angle-ply elastic and piezoelectric flat laminated panels under arbitrary boundary conditions. The present analytical solution is applicable to composite, sandwich and hybrid panels having arbitrary angle-ply lay-up, material properties, and boundary conditions. The modified Hamiltons principle approach has been applied to derive the weak form of governing equations where stresses, displacements, electric potential, and electric displacement field variables are considered as primary variables. Thereafter, multi-term multi-field extended Kantorovich approach (MMEKM) is employed to transform the governing equation into two sets of algebraic-ordinary differential equations (ODEs), one along in-plane (x) and other along the thickness (z) direction, respectively. These ODEs are solved in closed-form manner, which ensures the same order of accuracy for all the variables (stresses, displacements, and electric variables) by satisfying the boundary and continuity equations in exact manners. A robust algorithm is developed for extracting the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The numerical results are reported for various configurations such as elastic panels, sandwich panels and piezoelectric panels under different sets of boundary conditions. The effect of ply-angle and thickness to span ratio (s) on the dynamic behavior of the panels are also investigated. The presented 3D analytical solution will be helpful in the assessment of various 1D theories and numerical methods.

Key Words
free vibration; extended Kantorovich method (EKM); analytical solution; angle-ply piezoelectric laminate; arbitrary boundary conditions; smart structures

Address
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India

Abstract
Over the past few decades, the impact of natural, manmade and natech (natural hazard triggering technological disasters) disasters has been devastating, affecting over 4.4 billion people. In spite of recent technological advances, the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters and the escalation of manmade threats is presenting a number of challenges that warrant immediate attention. This paper explores the integration of drones or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles UAV's) into infrastructure monitoring and post-disaster assessment. Through reviewing some of the recent disasters, effectiveness of utilizing UAV's in different stages of disaster life cycle is demonstrated and needed steps for successful integration of UAV's in infrastructure monitoring, hazard mitigation and post-incident assessment applications are discussed. In addition, some of the challenges associated with implementing UAV's in disaster monitoring, together with research needs to overcome associated knowledge gaps, is presented.

Key Words
drones; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's); hazard; mitigation; disaster management

Address
M. Z. Naser: Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
V. K. Kodur: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA


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