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CONTENTS
Volume 3, Number 4, October 2018 (Special Issue)
 

Abstract


Key Words


Address


Abstract
High-performing architecture should be designed by taking into account the mutual dependency between the new building and the local context. The performative architecture plays an important role to avert any unforeseen failures after the building has been built; particularly ones related to the microclimate impacts that affect the human comfort. The use of the concept of solar envelopes helps designers to construct the developable mass of the building design considering the solar access and the site obstruction. However, the current analysis method using solar envelopes lack in terms of integrating the detailed information of the existing context during the simulation process. In architectural design, often the current site modelling not only absent in preserving the complex geometry but also information on the surface characteristics. Currently, the emerging applications of point clouds offer a great possibility to overcome these limitations, since they include the attribute information such as XYZ as the position information and RGB as the color information. This study particularly presents a comparative analysis between the manually built 3D models and the models generated from the point cloud data. The modelling comparisons focus on the relevant factors of solar radiation and a set of simulation to calculate the performance indicators regarding selected portions of the models. The experimental results emphasize an introduction of the design approach and the dataset visibility of the 3D existing environments. This paper ultimately aims at improving the current architectural decision of support environment means, by increasing the correspondence between the digital models for performance analysis and the real environments (context of design) during the conceptual design phase.

Key Words
solar envelope; point cloud data; microclimate impacts; environmental simulation; modeling environments

Address
Department of Architecture Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of
Technology, Building 8, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, Netherlands

Abstract
Parametric design systems serve as powerful assistive tools in the design process by providing a flexible approach for the generation of a vast number of design alternatives. However, contemporary parametric design systems focus primarily on low-level engineering and structural forms, without an explicit means to also take into account high-level, cognitively motivated people-centred design goals. We present a precedent-based parametric design method that integrates people-centred design \"precedents\" rooted in empirical evidence directly within state of the art parametric design systems. As a use-case, we illustrate the general method in the context of an empirical study focusing on the multi-modal analysis of wayfinding behaviour in two large-scale healthcare environments. With this use-case, we demonstrate the manner in which: (1). a range of empirically established design precedents - e.g., pertaining to visibility and navigation - may be articulated as design constraints to be embedded directly within state of the art parametric design tools (e.g., Grasshopper); and (2). embedded design precedents lead to the (parametric) generation of a number of morphologies that satisfy people-centred design criteria (in this case, pertaining to wayfinding). Our research presents an exemplar for the integration of cognitively motivated design goals with parametric design-space exploration methods. We posit that this opens-up a range of technological challenges for the engineering and development of next-generation computer aided architecture design systems.

Key Words
human behaviour studies; navigation; wayfinding; architecture design; spatial cognition; visual perception; parametric design; architectural computing; design computing

Address
Vasiliki Kondyli, Mehul Bhatt: DesignSpace Group. www.design-space.org
CoDesign Lab – Cognition. AI. Interaction. Design. www.codesign-lab.org
Applied Autonomous Sensor Systems (AASS), Orebro University, Sweden
Timo Hartmann: Systems Engineering, Civil Engineering Institute, TU Berlin, Germany

Abstract
The consideration of constructability issues at the design stage can lead to improved construction performance with smooth project delivery and savings in time and money. Empirical studies demonstrate the value obtained by integrating construction knowledge with the building design process, and its benefits for owners, contractors and designers. However, it is still a challenge to implement the concept into current design practice. There is a need for a decision support tool to aid designers in reviewing their design constructability, deploying current technological tools, such as BIM. Such tools are beneficial at the conceptual design stage when there is a room to improve the design significantly with less incurred cost. This research investigates how current process- and object-oriented models can be used to assess design constructability. It proposes a BIM-based model using embedded information within the design environment to conduct the assessment. The modelling framework is demonstrated in four key parts; namely, the conceptual design model, the constructability assessment model, the assessment process model and the decision-making phase. Each is associated with a set of components and functions that contribute towards the targeted constructability assessment outcomes. The proposed framework is the first to combine a numerical assessment system and a rule-based system, allowing for both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The modelling framework and its implementation through a prototype are described in this paper. It is believed that this framework is the first to enable users to transfer their construction knowledge and experience directly into a design platform linked to BIM models. The assessment criteria can be customised by the users who can reflect their own constructability preferences into various specialised profiles that can be added to the constructability assessment model. It also allows for the integration of the assessment process with the design phase, facilitating the optimisation of constructability performance from the early design stage.

Key Words
design constructability; constructability assessment; building design; BIM

Address
Abdelaziz Fadoul, Walid Tizani: Centre for Structural Engineering and Informatics, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Christian Koch: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany

Abstract
The study investigated an area of sustainable structural design that is often overlooked in practical engineering applications. Specifically, a novel method to simultaneously optimise the cost and embodied carbon performance of steel building structures was explored in this paper. To achieve this, a parametric design model was developed to analyse code compliant structural configurations based on project specific constraints and rigorous testing of various steel beam sections, floor construction typologies (precast or composite) and column layouts that could not be performed manually by engineering practitioners. Detailed objective functions were embedded in the model to compute the cost and life cycle carbon emissions of the different material types used in the structure. Results from a comparative numerical analysis of a real case study illustrated that the proposed optimisation approach could guide structural engineers towards areas of the solution space with realistic design configurations, enabling them to effectively evaluate trade-offs between cost and carbon performance. This significant contribution implied that the optimisation model could reduce the time required for the design and analysis of multiple structural configurations especially during the early stages of a project. Overall, the paper suggested that the deployment of automated design procedures can enhance the quality as well as the efficiency of the optimisation analysis.

Key Words
structural optimisation; steel frames; cost; carbon; design

Address
Stathis Eleftheriadis: Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Cyrille F. Dunant, Michal P. Drewniok: Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
William Rogers-Tizard: Price and Myers, 37 Alfred Place, London WC1E 7DP, UK
Constantinos Kyprianou: Steel Construction Institute, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7QN, UK

Abstract
Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) are tools widely used in the context of the construction industry. While BIM is used to represent the physical and functional characteristics of a facility, DES models are used to represent its construction process. Integrating both is beneficial to those interested in the field of construction management since it has many potential applications. Game engines provide a human navigable 3D virtual environment in which the integrated BIM and DES models can be visualised and interacted with. This paper reports the experience obtained while developing a simulator prototype which integrates a BIM and a DES model of a single construction activity within a commercial game engine. The simulator prototype allows the user to visualise how the duration of the construction activity is affected by different input parameters interactively. It provides an environment to conduct DES studies using the user\'s own BIM models. This approach could increase the use of DES technologies in the context of construction management and engineering outside the research community. The presented work is the first step towards the development of a serious game for construction management education and was carried out to determine the suitable IT tools for its development.

Key Words
building information modelling; discrete event simulation; game engine; serious game; construction management

Address
Carlos A. Osorio Sandoval, Walid Tizani: Centre for Structural Engineering and Informatics, University of Nottingham, UK
Christian Koch: Department of Intelligent Technical Design, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany


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