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CONTENTS
Volume 3, Number 1, January 2018
 

Abstract
The decaying temperature and dynamic response of a thermoelastic nanobeam subjected to a moving load has been investigated in the context of generalized theory of nonlocal thermoelasticity. The transformed distributions of deflection, temperature, axial displacement and bending moment are obtained by using Laplace transformation. By applying a numerical inversion method, the results of these fields are then inverted and obtained in the physical domain. Also, for a particular two models, numerical results are discussed and presented graphically. Some specific and special results are derived from the current study.

Key Words
thermoelastic nanobeam; moving load; exponentially decaying temperature

Address
Ashraf M. Zenkour: Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia;
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516, Egypt
Ahmed E. Abouelregal: Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt


Abstract
Tall buildings are categorized as important structures because of the large number of occupants and high construction costs. The choice of competent lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings is of crucial importance. Bracing systems have long been an economic and effective method for resisting lateral loads in steel structures. However, there are some potential adverse aspects to bracing systems such as the limitations they inflict on architectural plans, uplift forces and poor performances in compression. in order to eliminate the mentioned problems and for cost optimization, in this paper, six 20-story steel buildings and frames with different types of bracing, i.e., conventional, mega-scale and buckling-restrained bracing (BRB) were analyzed. Linear and modal push-over analyses were carried out. The results pointed out that Mega-Scale Bracing (MSB) system has significant superiority over the conventional bracing type. The MSB system is 25% more economic. Some other advantages of MSB include: up to 63% less drift ratio, up to 38% better performance in lateral displacement, up to 100% stiffer stories, and about 50% smaller uplift forces. Moreover, MSB equipped with BRB attests even a better seismic behavior in the aforementioned parameters.

Key Words
mega-scale bracing; buckling-restrained brace; tall building; seismic analysis; modal push-over analysis

Address
Mohammadreza Gholipour and Moosa Mazloom: Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Design of settlement space is a complicated process while reasonable spatial layout bears great significance on the development and resource allocation of a settlement. The study proposes a weighted L-system generation algorithm based on CA (Cellular Automation) model which tags the spatial attributes of cells through changes in their state during the evolution of CA and thus identifies the spatial growth mode of a settlement. The entrance area of the Caidian Botanical and Animal Garden is used a case study for the model. A design method is proposed which starts from the internal logics of spatial generation, explores possibility of spatial rules and realizes the quantitative analysis and dynamic control of the design process. Taking a top-down approach, the design method takes into account the site information, studies the spatial generation mechanism of settlements and further presents a engine for the generation of multiple layout proposals based on different rules. A optimal solution is acquired using GA (Genetic Algorithm) which generates a settlement spatial layout carrying site information and dynamically linked to the surround environment. The study aims to propose a design method to optimize the spatial layout of the complex settlement system based on parametric generation.

Key Words
parametric design; Cellular Automaton; L-system; genetic algorithm; layout optimization

Address
Song Jinghua, Xie Xinqin and Yu Yang: School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, China

Abstract
This paper shows an optimal design for reinforced concrete rectangular combined footings based on a criterion of minimum cost. The classical design method for reinforced concrete rectangular combined footings is: First, a dimension is proposed that should comply with the allowable stresses (Minimum stress should be equal or greater than zero, and maximum stress must be equal or less than the allowable capacity withstand by the soil); subsequently, the effective depth is obtained due to the maximum moment and this effective depth is checked against the bending shear and the punching shear until, it complies with these conditions, and then the steel reinforcement is obtained, but this is not guaranteed that obtained cost is a minimum cost. A numerical experimentation shows the model capability to estimate the minimum cost design of the materials used for a rectangular combined footing that supports two columns under an axial load and moments in two directions at each column in accordance to the building code requirements for structural concrete and commentary (ACI 318S-14). Numerical experimentation is developed by modifying the values of the rectangular combined footing to from \"d\" (Effective depth), \"b\" (Short dimension), \"a\" (Greater dimension), \"P1\" (Ratio of reinforcement steel under column 1), \"P2\" (Ratio of reinforcement steel under column 2), \"yLB\" (Ratio of longitudinal reinforcement steel in the bottom), \"yLT\" (Ratio of longitudinal reinforcement steel at the top). Results show that the optimal design is more economical and more precise with respect to the classical design. Therefore, the optimal design presented in this paper should be used to obtain the minimum cost design for reinforced concrete rectangular combined footings.

Key Words
optimal design; reinforced concrete rectangular combined footings; minimum cost design; moments; bending shear; punching shear

Address
Francisco Velázquez-Santillán, Arnulfo Luévanos-Rojas, Sandra López-Chavarría, Manuel Medina-Elizondo and Ricardo Sandoval-Rivas: Institute of Multidisciplinary Researches, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Blvd. Revolución No, 151 Ote, CP 27000, Torreón, Coahuila, México


Abstract
Thin-walled cross-sections can be optimized to enhance their resistance and progress their behaviour, leading to more competent and inexpensive structural system. The aim of this study is to afford a methodology that would facilitate progress of optimized cold formed steel (CFS) column section with maximum ultimate strength for practical applications. The proposed sections are designed to comply with the geometrical standards of pre-qualified column standards for CFS structures as well as with the number of industrialized and practical constraints. The stiffening evaluation process of CFS lipped channel columns, a five different cross section are considered. The experimental strength and behaviour of the proposed sections are verified by using the finite element analysis (FEA). A series comprehensive parametric study is carried out covering a wide range of section slenderness and overall slenderness ratio of the CFS column with and without intermediate web stiffeners. The ultimate strength of the sections is determined based on the Direct Strength Specification and other design equation available from the literature for CFS structures. A modified design method is proposed for the DSM specification. The results indicate that the CFS column with complex edge and intermediate web stiffeners provides an ultimate strength which is up to 78% higher than standard optimized shapes with the same amount of cross sectional area.

Key Words
cold-formed steel; edge stiffener; intermediate web stiffener; finite element analysis; slenderness ratio

Address
P. Manikandan: Centre for SONA Structural Engineering Research, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sona College of Technology, Salem,Tamilnadu,India
N. Arun: Design Engineer, YS Civil Structural Private Limited, Namakkal, Tamilnadu,India


Abstract
In this study, it is aimed to present engineering software to estimate the structural response of concrete arch dam. Type-1 concrete arch dam constructed in the laboratory is selected as a reference model. Finite element analyses and experimental measurements are conducted to show the accuracy of initial model. Dynamic analyses are carried out by spectrum analysis under empty reservoir case considering soil-structure interaction and fixed foundation condition. The displacements, principal stresses and strains are presented as an analysis results at all nodal points on downstream and upstream faces of dam body. It is seen from the analyses that there is not any specific ratio between prototype and scaled models for each nodal point with different scale values. So, dynamic analyses results cannot be generalized with a single formula. To eliminate this complexity, the regression analysis, which is a statistical method to obtain the real model results according to the prototype model by using fitting curves, is used. The regression analysis results are validated by numerical solutions using ANSYS software and the error percentages are examined. It is seen that 10% error rates are not exceeded.

Key Words
arch dam; engineering software; regression analysis

Address
Ahmet Can Altunisik, Ebru Kalkan and Hasan Basri Basaga: Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Trabzon, Turkey


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