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CONTENTS
Volume 70, Number 2, April25 2019
 

Abstract
The aim of the present paper is to present the cyclic behavior of strengthened reinforced concrete shear wall test specimen, which was reinforced with cold drawn welded wire mesh fabric. Two reinforced concrete shear wall specimens have been tested in the present study. The walls were tested under reversed cyclic loading with loading applied near the tip of the walls. The control wall is tested in its original state to serve as a baseline for the evaluation of the repair and strengthening techniques. The two test specimens include a control wall and a repaired wall. The control wall test specimen was designed and detailed to simulate non-ductile reinforced concrete shear walls that do not meet the modern seismic provisions. The response of the original wall was associated with the brittle failure. The control shear wall was repaired by addition of the reinforcements and the concrete and then it was reloaded. The effectiveness of the repair technique was investigated. Test results indicate that there can be a near full restoration of the walls\' strength. The data from this test, augmenting other data available in the literature, will be useful in calibrating improved analytical methods as they are developed.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; shear wall; retrofit technique; repairing; strengthening

Address
Suleyman B. Yuksel: Department of Civil Engineering, Konya Technical University, Konya, Turkey

Abstract
In this study, stochastic responses of a cable-stayed bridge subjected to the spatially varying earthquake ground motion are investigated for variable local soil cases and wave velocities. Quincy Bay-view cable-stayed bridge built on the Mississippi River in Illinois, USA selected as a numerical example. The bridge is composed of two H-shaped concrete towers, double plane fan type cables and a composite concrete-steel girder deck. The spatial variability of the ground motion is considered with the coherency function, which is represented by the components of incoherence, wave-passage and site-response effects. The incoherence effect is investigated by considering Harichandran and Vanmarcke model, the site-response effect is outlined by using hard, medium and soft soil types, and the wave-passage effect is taken into account by using 1000, 600 and 200 m/s wave velocities for the hard, medium and soft soils, respectively. Mean of maximum response values obtained from the analyses are compared with those of the specific cases of the ground motion model. It is concluded that the obtained results from the bridge model increase as the differences between local soil conditions cases of the bridge supports change from firm to soft. Moreover, the variation of the wave velocity has important effects on the responses of the deck and towers as compared with those of the travelling constant wave velocity case. In addition, the variability of the ground motions should be considered in the analysis of long span cable-stayed bridges to obtain more accurate results in calculating the bridge responses.

Key Words
wave-passage effect; incoherence effect; site-response effect; stochastic response; cable-stayed bridge; spatially varying earthquake ground motion

Address
Zeliha Tonyali: Department of Civil Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, 53100, Rize, Turkey
Sevket Ates and Suleyman Adanur: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, energy absorption characteristics of circular windowed tubes with different section shapes (circular, ellipse, square, hexagon, polygon and pentagon) are investigated numerically and experimentally. The tube possesses the same material, thickness, height, volume and average cross sectional area which are subjected under axial and oblique quasi-static loading conditions. Numerical model was constructed with FE code ABAQUS/Explicit, the obtained outcome of simulation is in good matching with the experimental data. The energy absorbed, specific energy absorption, crash force efficiency, peak and mean loads along with the collapse modes with their initiation point of simple and windowed tubes were evaluated. The technique for order of preference by similarity ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach was employed for assessing their overall crushing performances. The obtained results confirm that efficacy of crash force indicators have improved by introducing windows and tubes with pentagonal and circular windows achieves the maximum ranking about 0.528 and 0.517, it clearly reveals the above are best window shapes.

Key Words
windowed tubes; quasi-static loading; collapse modes; crash force indicators

Address
Baaskaran N and Ponappa K: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
Shankar S: Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract
The replacement of damaged components is an important task for long-span bridges. Conventional strategy for component replacement is to close the bridge to traffic, so that the influence of the surrounding environment is reduced to a minimum extent. However, complete traffic interruption would bring substantial economic losses and negative social influence nowadays. This paper investigates traffic control technologies without interruption for component replacement of long-span bridges. A numerical procedure of traffic control technologies is proposed incorporating traffic microsimulation and site-specific data, which is then implemented through a case study of cable replacement of a long-span cable-stayed bridge. Results indicate traffic load effects on the bridge are lower than the design values under current low daily traffic volume, and therefore cable replacement could be conducted without traffic control. However, considering a possible medium or high level of daily traffic volume, traffic load effects of girder bending moment and cable force nearest to the replaced cable become larger than the design level. This indicates a potential risk of failure, and traffic control should be implemented. Parametric studies show that speed control does not decrease but increase the load effects, and flow control using lane closure is not effectual. However, weight control and gap control are very effective to mitigate traffic load effects, and it is recommended to employ a weight control with gross vehicle weight no more than 65 t or/and a gap control with minimum vehicle gap no less than 40 m for the cable replacement of the case bridge.

Key Words
long-span bridge; component replacement; traffic control; load effect; microsimulation; multi-axle single-cell cellular automaton (MSCA)

Address
Junyong Zhou, Liwen Zhang and Zuo Sun: College of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, 230 West Waihuan Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China
Xuefei Shi: Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China

Abstract
In this article, the effect of different geometrical, materials and load parameters on the transient response of axisymmetric viscoelastic functionally graded annular plates with different boundary conditions are studied. The behavior of the plate is assumed the elastic in bulk and viscoelastic in shear with the standard linear solid model. Also, the graded properties vary through the thickness according to a power law function. Three types of mostly applied transient loading, i.e., step, impulse, and harmonic with different load distribution respect to radius coordinate are examined. The motion equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are extracted by applying the first order shear deformation theory which are three coupled partial differential equations with variable coefficients. The resulting motion equations are solved analytically using the perturbation technique and the generalized Fourier series. The sensitivity of the response to the graded indexes, different transverse loads, aspect ratios, boundary conditions and the material properties are investigated too. The results are compared with the finite element analysis.

Key Words
annular plate; viscoelastic functionally graded materials; analytical solution; shear deformation theory; dynamic response

Address
Seyed Hashem Alavi and Hamidreza Eipakchi: Faculty of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O.Box 316, Shahrood, I.R. Iran

Abstract
In this paper, a semi-analytical method will be discussed for free vibration analysis of rotating beams with variable cross sectional area. For this purpose, the rotating beam is discretized through applying the transfer matrix method and assumed the axial force is constant for each element. Then, the transfer matrix is derived based on Euler-Bernoulli\'s beam differential equation and applying boundary conditions. In the following, the frequencies of the rotating beam with constant and variable cross sections are determined using the transfer matrix method in several case studies. In order to eliminate numerical difficulties in the transfer matrix method, the Riccati transfer matrix is employed for high rotation speed and high modes. The results are compared with the results of the finite elements method and Rayleigh-Ritz method which show good agreement in spite of low computational cost.

Key Words
Riccati; transfer matrix method; rotating beam; cross section; natural frequency

Address
Mahdi Feyzollahzadeh and Mahdi Bamdad: Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Mechatronic Research Lab, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

Abstract
By normalizing the internal hysteresis variable and eliminating the redundant parameter, the normalized Bouc-Wen model is considered to be an improved and more reasonable form of the Bouc-Wen model. In order to facilitate application and further research of the normalized Bouc-Wen model, some key aspects of the model need to be uncovered. In this paper, hysteresis characterization of the normalized Bouc-Wen model is first studied with respect to the model parameters, which reveals the influence of each model parameter to the shape of the hysteresis loops. The parameter identification scheme is then proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm (IGA), and verified by experimental test data. It is proved that the proposed method can be an efficacious tool for identification of the model parameters by matching the reconstructed hysteresis loops with the target hysteresis loops. Meanwhile, the IGA is shown to outperform the standard GA. Finally, a simplified identification method is proposed based on parameter sensitivity, which indicates that the efficiency of the identification process can be greatly enhanced while maintaining comparable accuracy if the low-sensitivity parameters are reasonably restricted to narrower ranges.

Key Words
Bouc-Wen model; hysteresis; characterization; identification; genetic algorithm

Address
Zongjing Li and Ganping Shu: School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China

Abstract
This paper performs for the first time a simultaneous optimization for members sections along with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections for space steel frames with fixed, semi-rigid, and hinged bases using a biogeography-based optimization algorithm (BBO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Furthermore, a member\'s sections optimization for a fully fixed space frame is carried out. A real and accurate simulation of semi-rigid connection behavior is considered in this study, where the semi-rigid base connections are simulated using Kanvinde and Grilli (2012) nonlinear model, which considers deformations in different base connection components under the applied loads, while beam-to-column connections are modeled using the familiar Frye and Morris (1975) nonlinear polynomial model. Moreover, the P-∆ effect and geometric nonlinearity are considered. AISC-LRFD (2016) specification constraints of the stress and displacement are considered as well as section size fitting constraints. The optimization is applied to two benchmark space frame examples to inspect the effect of semi-rigidity on frame weight and drift using BBO and GA algorithms.

Key Words
genetic algorithm; biogeography-based optimization; semi-rigid space steel frame; optimization; semi-rigid base

Address
Osman Shallan, Hassan M. Maaly and Osman Hamdy: Department of Structural Engineering, University of Zagazig, Zagazig, Egypt
Merve Sagiroglu: Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Erzurum, Erzurum, Turkey

Abstract
This paper depicts the development and characterizations of laminated composites made with cellulosic giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea) fiber mats and epoxy resin. Zirconia-toughened mullite (ZTM) is used as a filler material in the laminated composite which was prepared from sillimanite through plasma processing technique. The mechanical characterizations of this composite have been carried out as per ASTM standards to evaluate its usability as a structural material. The effects of varying weight percentages of the filler and two different fiber orientations namely, angle-ply [+45o/-45o/+45o] and balanced cross-ply [0o/90o/0o] on the physical and mechanical properties such as density, microhardness, impact strength, tensile strength and interlaminar shear strength of the layered composite specimens have been investigated. The study indicates that the inclusion of zirconia-toughened mullite in the composite laminate as filler improves its mechanical properties. Moreover, the use of giant cane fiber mat in the laminate is more eco-friendly than the synthetic fibers. This research also helps in generating additional data to enrich the repository of natural fiber reinforced laminated composites.

Key Words
giant cane (arundinaria gigantea) fiber mat; zirconia-toughened mullite; laminated composites; mechanical characterization; fiber orientations

Address
Pruthwiraj Sahu: School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT, Bhubaneswar: 751024, Odisha, India
Sambit Kumar Parida: Department of Manufacturing Engineering, NIFFT Ranchi: 834003, Jharkhand, India
Sisir Mantry: Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar: 751013, Odisha, India

Abstract
In present research, we have considered transversely isotropic magneto thermoelastic solid with two temperature and without energy dissipation due to inclined load. The mathematical model has been formulated using Lord-Shulman theory. The Laplace and Fourier transform techniques have been used to find the solution to the problem. The displacement components, stress components and conductive temperature distribution with the horizontal distance are computed in the transformed domain and further calculated in the physical domain using numerical inversion techniques. The effect of rotation and angle of inclination of inclined load is depicted graphically on the resulting quantities.

Key Words
transversely isotropic thermoelastic; Laplace and Fourier transform; concentrated and distributed sources; inclined load

Address
Parveen Lata and Iqbal Kaur: Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India


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