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Volume 7, Number 1, July 2014

The effect of various parameters on the propagation of surface waves in electro-magneto thermoelastic orthotropic granular non-homogeneous medium subjected to gravity and initial compression has been studied. All material coefficients are obeyed the same exponent-law dependence on the depth of the granular elastic half space. Some special cases investigated by earlier researchers have also been deduced. Dispersion curves are computed numerically and presented graphically.

Key Words
inhomogeneous; granular media; gravity, initial stress; variable density; surface waves

(1) Rajneesh Kakar:
DIPS Polytechnic College, Tanda, Hoshiarpur, 146001, India;
(2) Shikha Kakar:
Department of Electronics, SBBSIET, Padhiana Jalandhar-144001, India.

A Web-based pile load test (WBPLT) system was developed and implemented in this study. Object-oriented and concept-based software design techniques were adopted to integrate the pile load test database into the system. A total of 673 case histories of pile load test were included in the database. The data consisted of drilled shaft and driven precast concrete pile axial load tests in drained, undrained, and gravel loading conditions as well as pre-analyzed data and back-calculated design parameters. Unified modeling language, a standard software design tool, was utilized to design the WBPLT system architecture with five major concept-based components. These components provide the static structure and dynamic behavior of system message flows in a visualized manner. The open-source Apache Web server is the building block of the WBPLT system, and PHP Web programming language implements the operation of the WBPLT components, particularly the automatic translation of user query into structured query language. A simple search and inexpensive query can be implemented through the Internet browser. The pile load test database is helpful, and data can be easily retrieved and utilized worldwide for research and advanced applications.

Key Words
pile; load tests; database; web-based; internet

(1) Yit-Jin Chen, Ming-Ru Liao, Shiu-Shin Lin:
Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, 32023, Taiwan;
(2) Jen-Kai Huang:
Liming Engineering Consultants Co., Ltd, 3F, No. 137, Dadun 17th St., Nantun Dist., Taichung City 408, Taiwan;
(3) Maria Cecilia M. Marcos:
Department of Civil Engineering, Adamson University, Manila, Philippines.

The theoretical predictions of ground movements induced by tunnelling are usually based on the assumptions that the subsoil has the same soil densities. The theoretical prediction does not consider the impact of different sand soil types on the surface settlement due to tunnelling. The finite elements analysis (FEA) considers stress and strength parameters of the different sand soil densities. The tunnel construction requires the solution of large soil.structure interaction problem. In the present study, the FEA is used to model soil-tunnel system performance based on a case study to discuss surface displacement due to tunnelling. The Greater Cairo metro tunnel (Line 3) is considered in the present study as case study. The surface displacements obtained by surface displacement equation (SDE) proposed by Peck and Schmidt (1969) are presented and discussed. The main objective of this study is to capture the limitations of the parameters used in the SDE based on the FEA at different sand soil densities. The study focuses on the parameters used in the SDE based on different sand soil densities. The surface displacements obtained by the FEA are compared with those obtained by the SDE. The results discussed in this paper show that the different sand soil densities neglected in the SDE have a significant influence on the surface displacement due to tunnelling.

Key Words
tunnels; surface settlement; surface displacement equation; deformations

Civil Engineering Department, Military Technical College, Kobbry El-Kobba, Khlifa El-Maamoon, Cairo, Egypt.

The application of the mechanized tunnelling has been extended in recent years. There are at present different approaches that are used in the design of segmental tunnel linings supported in mechanized tunnels. Even though segmental lining is utilized for mechanized tunnels, its behaviour is still quite unclear under in situ stress and there is a lack of data regarding the distribution of stresses inside segmental linings. So far no single effective calculation method exists for segmental lining design. The lack of clear solutions makes the use of segmental lining to be more expensive due to the adoption of greater safety factors. Therefore, a particular attention must be given in order to obtain data from monitored tunnels which permits to validate design methods. In this study, strain measurements, which were conducted during the construction of twin tunnels in the Bologna-Florence railway line, have been presented. The behaviour of segmental lining during the excavation and the influence of a new tunnel excavation on an existing tunnel have been shown through the measured data. The data are then compared with the results obtained with Einstein and Schwartz\'s method and Duddeck and Erdmann\'s method, which permits to highlight the fact that the two analytical methods underestimate structural forces induced in the segmental lining and then must be used with caution.

Key Words
tunnel; tunnelling; monitoring; segmental lining; structural forces; strain gauges

(1) Ngoc-Anh Do, Irini Djeran-Maigre:
Laboratory LGCIE, University of Lyon, INSA of Lyon, Villeurbanne, France;
(2) Pierpaolo Oreste, Croce Antonello:
Department of Environmental, Land and Infrastructural Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy;
(3) Daniel Dias:
Laboratory LTHE, Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France;
(4) Locatelli Livio:
Golder Associates Srl, Milano, Italy;
(5) Ngoc-Anh Do:
Department of Underground and Mining Construction, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Vietnam.

This study investigated the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the response of base-isolated buildings. Seismic isolation can significantly reduce the induced seismic loads on a relatively stiff building by introducing flexibility at its base and avoiding resonance with the predominant frequencies of common earthquakes. To provide a better understanding of the movement behavior of multi-story structures during earthquakes, this study analyzed the dynamic behavior of multi-story structures with high damping rubber bearing (HDRB) behavior base isolation systems that were built on soft soil. Various models were developed, both with and without consideration of SSI. Both the superstructure and soil were modeled linearly, but HDRB was modeled non-linearly. The behavior of the specified models under dynamic loads was analyzed using SAP2000 computer software. Erzincan, Marmara and Duzce Earthquakes were chosen as the ground motions. Following the analysis, the displacements, base shear forces, top story accelerations, base level accelerations, periods and maximum internal forces were compared in isolated and fixed-base structures with and without SSI. The results indicate that soil-structure interaction is an important factor (in terms of earthquakes) to consider in the selection of an appropriate isolator for base-isolated structures on soft soils.

Key Words
HDRB; soil structure interaction; earthquake; soft soil; time history analysis

(1) T. Karabork, I.O. Deneme:
Department of Civil Engineering, Aksaray University, 68100 Aksaray, Turkey;
(2) R.P. Bilgehan:
Department of Geology Engineering, Aksaray University, 68100 Aksaray, Turkey.

In this paper, the effects of variability of smear zone characteristics induced by installation of prefabricated vertical drains on the preloading design are investigated employing analytical and numerical approaches. Conventional radial consolidation theory has been adopted to conduct analytical parametric studies considering variations of smear zone permeability and extent. FLAC 2D finite difference software has been employed to conduct the numerical simulations. The finite difference analyses have been verified using three case studies including two embankments and a large-scale laboratory consolidometer with a central geosynthetic vertical drain. A comprehensive numerical parametric study is conducted to investigate the influence of smear zone permeability and extent on the model predictions. Furthermore, the construction of the trial embankment is recommended as a reliable solution to estimate accurate smear zone properties and minimise the post construction settlement. A back-calculation procedure is employed to determine the minimum required waiting time after construction of the trial embankment to predict the smear zone characteristics precisely. Results of this study indicate that the accurate smear zone permeability and extent can be back-calculated when 30% degree of consolidation is obtained after construction of the trial embankment.

Key Words
prefabricated vertical drain; smear zone; trial embankment; numerical analysis; FLAC

(1) Ali Parsa-Pajouh, Behzad Fatahi, Hadi Khabbaz:
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia;
(2) Philippe Vincent:
Menard Bachy Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia.

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