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CONTENTS
Volume 69, Number 5, March10 2019
 

Abstract
Based on the displacement general solution of a pre-twisted Euler-Bernoulli beam, the shape function and stiffness matrix are deduced, and a new finite element model is proposed. Comparison analyses are made between the new proposed numerical model based on displacement general solution and the ANSYS solution by Beam188 element based on infinite approach. The results show that developed numerical model is available for the pre-twisted Euler-Bernoulli beam, and that also provide an accuracy finite element model for the numerical analysis. The effects of pre-twisted angle and flexural stiffness ratio on the mechanical property are also investigated.

Key Words
pre-twisted; Euler-Bernoulli beam; general solution; finite element; parametric analysis

Address
Ying Huang: School of Civil Engineering, Xi\'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi\'an, 710055, China
Changhong Chen, Haoran Zou and Yao Yao: School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi\'an, 710129, China

Abstract
Rapid advances in the engineering applications can bring further areas to provide the opportunity to manipulate anisotropic structures for direct productivity in design of micro/nano-structures. For the first time, magnetic affected wave characteristics of nanosize plates made of anisotropic material is investigated via the three-dimensional bi-Helmholtz nonlocal strain gradient theory. Three small scale parameters are used to predict the size-dependent behavior of the nanoplates more accurately. After owing governing equations of wave motion, an analytical approach based harmonic series is utilized to fine the wave frequency as well as phase velocity. It is observed that the small scale parameters, magnetic field and wave number have considerable influence on the wave characteristics of anisotropic nanoplates. Due to the lack of any study on the mechanics of three-dimensional bi-Helmholtz gradient plates made of anisotropic materials, it is hoped that the present exact model may be used as a benchmark for future works of such nanostructures.

Key Words
wave propagation; anisotropic materials; three dimensional elasticity theory; magnetic field

Address
Behrouz Karami and Maziar Janghorban: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran
Abdelouahed Tounsi: Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria

Abstract
While the wheel flat is an asymmetrical phenomenon in the railway, majority of researches have used two-dimensional models in the investigation of the effect of wheel flat on the wheel rail forces. This is due to the considerably low computational costs of two dimensional (2D) models although their reliability is questionable. This leaves us with the question of \"what is the optimum modeling technique?\". It is addressed in this research. For this purpose, two and three dimensional numerical models of railway vehicle/track interaction were developed. The three dimensional (3D) model was validated by comparisons of its results with those obtained from a comprehensive field tests carried out in this research and then, the results obtained from the 2D and 3D models were compared. The results obtained indicate that there are considerable differences between wheel/rail forces obtained from the 2D and 3D models in the conditions of medium to large wheel-flats. On the other hand, it was shown that the results of the 2D models are reliable for particular ranges of vehicle speed, railway track stiffness and wheel-fats lengths and depths. The results were used to draw a diagram, which presents the optimum modeling technique, compromising between the costs and accuracy of the obtained results.

Key Words
wheel-flat; three and two dimensional; numerical model; nonlinear Hertz contact

Address
Javad Sadeghi and Morteza Esmaeili: School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Amin Khajehdezfuly and Davood Poorveis: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents an analytical study of wave propagation in simply supported graduated functional plates resting on a two-parameter elastic foundation (Pasternak model) using a new theory of high order shear strain. Unlike other higher order theories, the number of unknowns and governing equations of the present theory is only four unknown displacement functions, which is even lower than the theory of first order shear deformation (FSDT). Unlike other elements, the present work includes a new field of motion, which introduces indeterminate integral variables. The properties of the materials are assumed to be ordered in the thickness direction according to the two power law distributions in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. The wave propagation equations in FG plates are derived using the principle of virtual displacements. The analytical dispersion relation of the FG plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples selected from the literature are illustrated. A good agreement is obtained between the numerical results of the current theory and those of reference. A parametric study is presented to examine the effect of material gradation, thickness ratio and elastic foundation on the free vibration and phase velocity of the FG plate.

Key Words
FG plate; shear deformation theory; free vibration; wave propagation; phase velocity; elastic foundations

Address
Mokhtar Nebab and Riadh Bennai: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Hassiba Benbouali of Chlef, Algeria
Hassen Ait Atmane:
1) Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Hassiba Benbouali of Chlef, Algeria
2) Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
Abdelouahed Tounsi:
1) Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria
2) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals,
31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia
E.A. Adda Bedia: Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
This paper will compare T3ys and MITC3 elements, both these two elements are three-node triangular plate bending elements with three degrees of freedom per node. The formulation of the T3ys and MITC3 elements is rather simple and has already been widely used. This paper will prove that the shear strain formulation of these two elements is identical even though they are obtained from two different methods. A single element is used to test the formulation of shear strain matrices. Numerical tests for circular plate cases compared with the exact solutions and with DKMT element will complete this review to verify the performances and show the convergence of these two elements.

Key Words
plate bending element; T3ys; MITC3; Reissner-Mindlin plate theory; assumed natural strain

Address
Andi Makarim Katili, Imam Jauhari Maknun and Irwan Katili: Department of Civil Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

Abstract
Stress analysis of bottom-hole rock has to be considered with much care to further understand rock fragmentation mechanism and high penetration rate. This original study establishes a fully coupled simulation model and explores the effects of overburden pressure, horizontal in-situ stresses, drilling mud pressure, pore pressure and temperature on the stress distribution in bottom-hole rock. The research finds that in air drilling, as the well depth increases, the more easily the bottom-hole rock is to be broken. Moreover, the mud pressure has a great effect on the bottom-hole rock. The bigger the mud pressure is, the more difficult to break the bottom-hole rock is. Furthermore, the maximum principal stress of the bottom-hole increases as the mud pressure, well depth and temperature difference increase. The bottom-hole rock can be divided into three main regions according to the stress state, namely a) three directions tensile area, b) two directions compression areas and c) three directions compression area, which are classified as a) easy, b) normal and c) hard, respectively, for the corresponding fragmentation degree of difficulty. The main contribution of this paper is that it presents for the first time a thorough study of the effect of related factors, including stress distribution and temperature, on the bottom-hole rock fracture rather than the well wall, using a thermo-poroelastoplasticity model.

Key Words
thermo-poroelastoplasticity; bottom-hole rock stress; fully coupled analysis; finite element analysis; fragmentation mechanism

Address
Weiji Liu:
1) School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, 610500, Chengdu, China
2) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore
Yunlai Zhou and Xiannan Meng: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore
Xiaohua Zhu: School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, 610500, Chengdu, China
Mei Liu: Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Durability for Marine Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Magd Abdel Wahab:
1) Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2) Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
3) Soete Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 903, Zwijnaarde B-9052, Belgium

Abstract
In this study, vibration analysis of a concrete foundation-reinforced by SiO2 nanoparticles resting on soil bed is investigated. The soil medium is simulated with spring constants. Furthermore, the Mori-Tanaka low is used for obtaining the material properties of nano-composite structure and considering agglomeration effects. Using third order shear deformation theory or Reddy theory, the total potential energy of system is calculated and by means of the Hamilton\'s principle, the coupled motion equations are obtained. Also, based an analytical method, the frequency of system is calculated. The effects of volume percent and agglomeration of SiO2 nanoparticles, soil medium and geometrical parameters of structure are shown on the frequency of system. Results show that with increasing the volume percent of SiO2 nanoparticles, the frequency of structure is increased.

Key Words
vibration of concrete foundation; agglomeration; SiO2 nanoparticles; soil medium; analytical method

Address
Mahdi Mahjoobi and Mahmood Rabani Bidgoli: Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Khomein Branch, Khomein, Iran

Abstract
The reservoir basin bedrock produced significant impact on the long-term service safety of super-high arch dams. It was important for accurately identifying geomechanical parameters and its evolution process of reservoir basin bedrock. The deformation modulus mechanism research methods of reservoir basin bedrock deformation modulus for super-high arch dams was carried out by finite element numerical calculation of the reservoir basin bedrock deformation and in-situ monitoring data analysis. The deformation modulus inversion principle of reservoir basin bedrock in a wide range was studied. The convergence criteria for determining the calculation range of reservoir basin of super-high arch dams was put forward. The implementation method was proposed for different layers and zones of reservoir basin bedrock. A practical engineering of a super-high arch dam was taken as the example.

Key Words
wide basin bedrock; deformation modulus; finite element numerical calculation; inversion principle

Address
Bangbin Wu:
1) State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2) College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3) College of Water Conservancy and Ecological Engineering, Nanchang Institute of technology, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330099, China
Jingtai Niu: College of Water Conservancy and Ecological Engineering, Nanchang Institute of technology, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330099, China
Huaizhi Su, Meng Yang and Zhongru Wu:
1) State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
2) College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3) National Engineering Research Center of Water Resources Efficient Utilization and Engineering Safety,
Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
Xinbo Cui: Information Center of Land and Resources in Binzhou City, Binzhou, China

Abstract
Guyed steel lattice towers (or guyed masts) are widely used for supporting antennas for telecommunications and broadcasting. This paper presents a numerical study on the static and dynamic response of guyed towers. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite-element models are used to simulate the response. Through performing static pushover analyses and free-vibration (modal) analyses, the effect of different bracing configurations is investigated. In addition, seismic analyses are performed on towers of different heights to study the influence of earthquake excitation time-lag (or the earthquake travel distance between tower anchors) and antenna weight on the seismic response of guyed towers. The results show that the inclusion of time lag in the seismic analysis of guyed towers can influence shear and moment distribution along the height of the mast. Moreover, it is found that the lateral response is insensitive to bracing configurations. The results also show that, depending on the mast height, an increased antenna weight can reduce the tower maximum base shear while other response quantities, such as cables tension force are found to be insensitive to variation in the antenna weight.

Key Words
bracing configurations; dynamic analysis; guyed lattice towers; seismic analysis; ultimate load; finite-element

Address
Hussam M. Meshmesha: Formerly: Bantrel Co., Calgary, Alberta, Canada
John B. Kennedy: Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada
Khaled Sennah and Saber Moradi: Department of Civil Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Abstract
Numerous experimental studies have been conducted on reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (EBFRP). The objectives of this work are to study the behavioral trends of shear strengthened EBFRP RC beams after updating the existing database. The previously published databases have been updated, enriched and cross checked for completeness, redundancy and consistency. The updated database now contains data on 698 EBFRP beams and covers the time span from 1992 to 2018. The collected database then refined applying certain filters and used to investigate and capture better interactions among various influencing parameters affecting the shear strength of EBFRP beams. These parameters include the type and properties of FRP, fiber orientation as well as the strengthening scheme, the shear and the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratios, the shear span ratio, and the geometry of the member. The refined database is used to test the prediction accuracy of the existing design models. Considerable scatters are found in the results of all tested prediction models and in many occasions the predictions are unsafe. To better understand the shear behavior of the EBFRP RC beams and then enhance the prediction models, it was concluded that focused experimental programs should be carried out.

Key Words
beam; fiber; FRP; reinforced concrete; shear strength

Address
Samer Barakat, Salah Al-Toubat, Moussa Leblouba and Eman Al Burai: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, P.O. BOX 27272, United Arab Emirates


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