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CONTENTS
Volume 68, Number 5, December10 2018
 

Abstract
In this article, experimental training of the commercial available shape memory alloy fibre (SMA) fibre under the combined thermomechanical loading is reported. SMA has the ability to sense a small change in temperature (>_10oC) and activated under the external loading and results in shape change. The thermomechanical characteristics of SMA at different temperature and mechanical loading are obtained through an own lab-scale experimental setup. The analysis is conducted for two types of the medium using the liquid nitrogen (cold cycle) and the hot water (heat cycle). The experimental data indicate that SMA act as a normal wire for Martensite phase and activated behavior i.e., regain the original shape during the Austenite phase only. To improve the confidence of such kind of behavior has been verified by inspecting the composition of the wire. The study reveals interesting conclusion i.e., while SMA deviates from the equiatomic structure or consist of foreign materials (carbon and oxygen) except nickel and titanium may affect the phase transformation temperature which shifted the activation phase temperature. Also, the grain structure distortion of SMA wire has been examined via the scanning electron microscope after the thermomechanical cycle loading and discussed in details.

Key Words
shape memory alloy (SMA); thermo-mechanical cycle (TMC); martensite transformation; phase change; liquid nitrogen (LN2)

Address
Digamber Shinde and Md. Rajik Khan: Department of Industrial Design, NIT Rourkela, Rourkela-769008, Odisha, India
Pankaj V Katariya, Kulmani Mehar and Subrata K Panda: Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Rourkela-769008, Odisha, India
Harsh K Pandey: Dr. C.V. Raman Institute of Science & Technology, Kargi Road, Bilaspur-495113, Chhattisgarh, India

Abstract
The free vibration frequency responses of the graded flat and curved (cylindrical, spherical, hyperbolic and elliptical) panel structures investigated in this research considering the rectangular and tilted planforms under unlike temperature loading. For the numerical implementation purpose, a micromechanical model is prepared with the help of Voigt\'s methodology via the power-law type of material model. Additionally, to incur the exact material strength, the temperature-dependent properties of each constituent of the graded structure included due to unlike thermal environment. The deformation kinematics of the rectangular/tilted graded shallow curved panel structural is modeled via higher-order type of polynomial functions. The final form of the eigenvalue equation of the heated structure obtained via Hamilton\'s principle and simultaneously solved numerically using finite element steps. To show the solution accuracy, a series of comparison the results are compared with the published data. Some new results are exemplified to exhibit the significance of power-law index, shallowness ratio, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on the combined thermal eigen characteristics of the regular and tilted graded panel structure.

Key Words
FGM; free vibration; tilted panels; TSDT; thermal field

Address
Chandra Mouli B: Department of Mechanical Engineering, RISE Krishna Sai Prakasam Group of Institutions, Ongole, India
Ramji K: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Srikakulam, India
Vishesh R Kar: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, India
Subrata K Panda and Lalepalli Anil K: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
Harsh K Pandey: Dr. C. V. Raman Institute of Science & Technology, Kargi Road Kota, Bilaspur (CG), India

Abstract
This research presents the effect of anisotropy of the hollow disc mode under Brazilian test using PFC3D. The Brazilian tensile strength test was performed on the hollow disc specimens containing the bedding layers and then these specimens were numerically modeled by using the two dimensional discrete element code (PFC3D) to calibrate this computer code for the simulation of the cracks propagation and cracks coalescence in the anisotropic bedded rocks. The thickness of each layer within the specimens varied as 5 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm and the layers angles were changed as 0o, 25o, 50o, 75o and 90o. The diameter of internal hole was taken as 15 mm and the loading rate during the testing process kept as 0.016 mm/s. It has been shown that for layers angles below 25o the tensile cracks produce in between the layers and extend toward the model boundary till interact and break the specimen. The failure process of the specimen may enhance as the layer angle increases so that the Brazilian tensile strength reaches to its minimum value when the bedding layers is between 50o and 75o but its value reaches to maximum at a layer angle of 90o. The number of tensile cracks decreases as the layers thickness increases and with increasing the layers angle, less layer mobilize in the failure process.

Key Words
bedding layer; Brazilian test; anisotropy; crack; PFC3D

Address
Vahab Sarfarazi: Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran
Hadi Haeri: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Bafgh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bafgh, Iran

Abstract
Sobol method is applied as a powerful variance decomposition technique in the field of global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The paper is devoted to increase convergence speed of the extracted Sobol indices using a new proposed sampling technique called genetic based Latine hypercube sampling (GBLHS). This technique is indeed an improved version of restricted Latine hypercube sampling (LHS) and the optimization algorithm is inspired from genetic algorithm in a new approach. The new approach is based on the optimization of minimax value of LHS arrays using manipulation of array indices as chromosomes in genetic algorithm. The improved Sobol method is implemented to perform factor prioritization and fixing of an uncertain comprehensive high speed rotor-bearing system. The finite element method is employed for rotor-bearing modeling by considering Eshleman-Eubanks assumption and interaction of axial force on the rotor whirling behavior. The performance of the GBLHS technique are compared with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS), LHS and Optimized LHS (Minimax. criteria). Comparison of the GBLHS with other techniques demonstrates its capability for increasing convergence speed of the sensitivity indices and improving computational time of the GSA.

Key Words
global sensitivity analysis; sobol method; genetic based Latine hypercube sampling; rotor-bearing system; uncertainty analysis

Address
Mohammad Reza Fatehi, Afshin Ghanbarzadeh, Shapour Moradi and Ali Hajnayeb: Mechanical Engineering Department, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz 61355, Iran

Abstract
Temperature-induced responses, such as strains and displacements, are related to the boundary conditions. Therefore, it is required to determine the boundary conditions to establish a reliable bridge model for temperature-induced responses analysis. Particularly, bridge bearings usually present nonlinear behavior with an increase in load, and the nonlinear boundary conditions cause significant effect on temperature-induced responses. In this paper, the bridge nonlinear boundary conditions were simulated as bilinear translational or rotational springs, and the boundary parameters of the bilinear springs were identified based on the measured temperature-induced responses. First of all, the temperature-induced responses of a simply support beam with nonlinear translational and rotational springs subjected to various temperature loads were analyzed. The simulated temperature-induced strains and displacements were assumed as measured data. To identify the nonlinear translational and rotational boundary parameters of the bridge, the objective function based on the temperature-induced responses is then created, and the nonlinear boundary parameters were further identified by using the nonlinear least squares optimization algorithm. Then, a beam structure with nonlinear translational and rotational springs was simulated as a numerical example, and the nonlinear boundary parameters were identified based on the proposed method. The numerical results show that the proposed method can effectively identify the parameters of the nonlinear boundary conditions. Finally, the boundary parameters of a real arch bridge were identified based on the measured strain data and the proposed method. Since the bearings of the real bridge do not perform nonlinear behavior, only the linear boundary parameters of the bridge model were identified. Based on the bridge model and the identified boundary conditions, the temperature-induced strains were recalculated to compare with the measured strain data. The recalculated temperature-induced strains are in a good agreement with the real measured data.

Key Words
temperature-induced response; boundary condition; parameter identification; model updating; nonlinear least squares optimization

Address
Zuo-Cai Wang and Wei-Xin Ren:
1) Department of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, Anhui, China
2) New Theory and Technology Research Platform of Bridge Structure Safety Monitoring, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China
Guo-Peng Zha and Hao Yang: Department of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, Anhui, China
Ke Hu: Anhui Transportation Holding Group Co., Ltd., Hefei, 230088, China

Abstract
It is well known that the incidence angle of seismic excitation has an influence on the structural response of buildings, and this effect can be more significant in the case of near-fault signals. However, current seismic codes do not include detailed requirements regarding the direction of application of the seismic action and they have only recently introduced specific provisions about near-fault earthquakes. Thus, engineers have the task of evaluating all the relevant directions or the most critical conditions case by case, in order to avoid underestimating structural demand. To facilitate the identification of the most critical incidence angle, this paper presents a procedure which makes use of a two-degree of freedom model for representing a building. The proposed procedure makes it possible to avoid the extensive computational effort of multiple dynamic analyses with varying angles of incidence of ground motion excitation, which is required if a spatial multi-degree of freedom model is used for representing a building. The procedure is validated through the analysis of two case studies consisting of an eight- and a six-storey reinforced concrete frame building, selected as representative of existing structures located in Italy. A set of 124 near-fault ground motion records oriented along 8 incidence angles, varying from 0 to 180 degrees, with increments of 22.5 degrees, is used to excite the structures. Comparisons between the results obtained with detailed models of the two structures and the proposed procedure are used to show the accuracy of the latter in the prediction of the most critical angle of seismic incidence.

Key Words
near-fault; directionality; incidence angle; dynamic analysis; spatial building model

Address
Paolo E. Sebastiani, Laura Liberatore, Andrea Lucchini and Fabrizio Mollaioli: Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome, Italy

Abstract
Non-moment beam-to-column connections, which are usually referred to as simple or shear connections, are typically designed to carry only gravity loads in the form of vertical shears. Although in the analysis of structures these connections are usually assumed to be pinned, they may provide a small amount of rotational stiffness due to the typical connection details. This paper investigates the effects of this small rotational restraint of simple beam-to-column connections on the behavior and seismic response of steel braced non-moment resisting frames. Two types of commonly used simple connections with bolted angles, i.e., the Double Web angle Connection (DWC) and Unstiffened Seat angle Connection (USC) are considered for this purpose. In addition to the pinned condition - as a simplified representation of these connections - more accurate semi-rigid models are established and then applied to some frame models subjected to nonlinear pushover and nonlinear time history analyses. Although the use of bracing elements generally reduces the sensitivity of the global structural response to the behavior of connections, the obtained results indicate considerable effects on the local responses. Namely, our results show that consideration of the real behavior of connections is essential in designing the column elements where the pin-connection assumption significantly underestimates design of outer columns of upper stories.

Key Words
simple connections; steel braced frames; nonlinear analysis; seismic response; semi-rigid connections

Address
Saman Bagheri and Navid Vafi Tabrizi: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
In this research, an effective computational technique is carried out for nonlinear and post-buckling analyses of cracked imperfect composite plates. The laminated plates are assumed to be moderately thick so that the analysis can be carried out based on the first-order shear deformation theory. Geometric non-linearity is introduced in the way of von-Karman assumptions for the strain-displacement equations. The Ritz technique is applied using Legendre polynomials for the primary variable approximations. The crack is modeled by partitioning the entire domain of the plates into several sub-plates and therefore the plate decomposition technique is implemented in this research. The penalty technique is used for imposing the interface continuity between the sub-plates. Different out-of-plane essential boundary conditions such as clamp, simply support or free conditions will be assumed in this research by defining the relevant displacement functions. For in-plane boundary conditions, lateral expansions of the unloaded edges are completely free while the loaded edges are assumed to move straight but restricted to move laterally. With the formulation presented here, the plates can be subjected to biaxial compressive loads, therefore a sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to the applied load direction, along the parallel or perpendicular to the crack axis. The integrals of potential energy are numerically computed using Gauss-Lobatto quadrature formulas to get adequate accuracy. Then, the obtained non-linear system of equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson method. Finally, the results are presented to show the influence of crack length, various locations of crack, load direction, boundary conditions and different values of initial imperfection on nonlinear and post-buckling behavior of laminates.

Key Words
geometric nonlinearity; crack; plate decomposition technique; ritz; penalty technique; composite plates

Address
S. Amir M. Ghannadpour and Mona Karimi: Faculty of New Technologies and Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Soft-story buildings have bottom stories much less rigid than the top stories and are susceptible to earthquake damage. Therefore, the seismic design specifications need strict design considerations in such cases. In this paper, a four-story building was investigated as a case study and the effects of X-braces elimination in its lower stories studied. In addition, the possibility of replacement of the X-braces in soft-stories with equivalent moment resisting frame inspected in two different phases. In first phase, the stiffness of X-braces and equivalent moment-resisting frames evaluated using classic equations. In final phase, diagonals removed from the lowest story to develop a soft-story and replaced with moment resisting frames. Then, the seismic stiffness variation of moment-resisting frame evaluated using nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. The results show that substitution of braced frames with an equivalent moment-resisting frame of the same stiffness increases story drift and reduces energy absorption capacity. However, it is enough to consider the needs of building codes, even using equivalent moment resisting frame instead of X-Braces, to avoid soft-story stiffness irregularity in seismic design of buildings. Besides, soft-story development in the second story may be more critical under strong ground excitations, because of interaction of adjacent stories.

Key Words
ductility; dynamic analysis; earthquake/seismic analysis; energy dissipation; non-linear analysis; retrofit/rehabilitation; stability/instability; steel structures

Address
Parviz Ebadi: Department of Civil Engineering, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Ahmad Maghsoudi and Hessam Mohamady: M.Sc. in Earthquake Engineering, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
One of the important problems in the vehicle design is vehicle handling and stability. Effective parameters which should be considered in the vehicle handling and stability are roll angle, camber angle and scrub radius. In this paper, a planar vehicle model is considered that two right and left suspensions are double wishbone suspension system. For a better analysis of the suspension geometry, a kinestatic model of vehicle is considered which instantaneous kinematic and statics relations are analyzed simultaneously. In this model, suspension geometry is considered completely. In order to optimum design of double wishbones suspension system, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied. Three important parameters of suspension including roll angle, camber angle and scrub radius are taken into account as objective functions. Coordinates of suspension hard points are design variables of optimization which optimum values of them, corresponding to each optimum point, are obtained in the optimization process. Pareto solutions for three objective functions are derived. There are important optimum points in these Pareto solutions which each point represents an optimum status in the model. In other words, corresponding to any optimal point, a specific geometric position is determined for the suspension hard points. Each of the obtained points in the Pareto optimization can be selected for a special design purpose by designer to create an optimum condition in the vehicle handling and stability.

Key Words
multi-objective optimization; double wishbone suspension; kinestatic analysis; vehicle handling and stability

Address
Mohammad Reza Bagheri, Masoud Mosayebi and Asghar Mahdian: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Ahmad Keshavarzi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran


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