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CONTENTS
Volume 33, Number 1, October10 2019
 

Abstract
In the present study, the behavior of steel plate shear walls (SPSW) with variable column flexural stiffness is experimentally and numerically investigated. Altogether six one-bay one-story specimens, three moment resisting frames (MRFs) and three SPSWs, were designed, fabricated and tested. Column flexural stiffness of the first specimen pair (one MRF and one SPSW) corresponded to the value required by the design codes, while for the second and third pair it was reduced by 18% and 36%, respectively. The quasi-static cyclic test result indicate that SPSW with reduced column flexural stiffness have satisfactory performance up to 4% story drift ratio, allow development of the tension field over the entire infill panel, and cause negligible column "pull-in" deformation which indicates that prescribed minimal column flexural stiffness value, according to AISC 341-10, might be conservative. In addition, finite element (FE) pushover simulations using shell elements were developed. Such FE models can predict SPSW cyclic behavior reasonably well and can be used to conduct numerical parametric analyses. It should be mentioned that these FE models were not able to reproduce column "pull-in" deformation indicating the need for further development of FE simulations with cyclic load introduction which will be part of another paper.

Key Words
steel plate shear wall; tension field theory; quasi-static cyclic testing; column flexural stiffness; finite element model

Address
Department of Structures, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Kaciceva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia.


Abstract
Cyclic behaviour of composite (steel - concrete) plate shear walls (CPSW) with variable column flexural stiffness is experimentally and numerically investigated. The investigation included design, fabrication and testing of three pairs of one-bay one-storey CPSW specimens. The reference specimen pair was designed in way that its column flexural stiffness corresponds to the value required by the design codes, while within the other two specimen pairs column flexural stiffness was reduced by 18% and 36%, respectively. Specimens were subjected to quasi-static cyclic tests. Obtained results indicate that column flexural stiffness reduction in CPSW does not have negative impact on the overall behaviour allowing for satisfactory performance for up to 4% storey drift ratio while also enabling inelastic buckling of the infill steel plate. Additionally, in comparison to similar steel plate shear wall (SPSW) specimens, column "pull-in" deformations are less pronounced within CPSW specimens. Therefore, the results indicate that prescribed minimal column flexural stiffness value used for CPSW might be conservative, and can additionally be reduced when compared to the prescribed value for SPSWs. Furthermore, finite element (FE) pushover simulations were conducted using shell and solid elements. Such FE models can adequately simulate cyclic behaviour of CPSW and as such could be further used for numerical parametric analyses. It is necessary to mention that the implemented pushover FE models were not able to adequately reproduce column "pull-in" deformation and that further development of FE simulations is required where cyclic loading of the shear walls needs to be simulated.

Key Words
composite plate shear wall; infill panel shear yield; quasi-static cyclic test; column flexural stiffness; finite element model

Address
(1) Ivan Curkovic, Davor Skejic, Ivica Dzeba:
Department of Structures, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Kaciceva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia;
(2) Gianfranco De Matteis:
Department of Architecture and Industrial Design, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Abbey of San Lorenzo in Septimum, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy.


Abstract
In cold-formed steel structures, such as trusses, wall frames and portal frames, the use of back-to-back built-up cold-formed stainless-steel lipped channels as compression members are becoming increasingly popular. The advantages of using stainless-steel as structural members are corrosion resistance and durability, compared with carbon steel. The AISI/ASCE Standard, SEI/ASCE-8-02 and AS/NZS do not include the design of stainless-steel built-up channels and very few experimental tests or finite element analyses have been reported in the literature for such back-to back cold-formed stainless-steel channels. Current guidance by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and the Australian and New Zealand (AS/NZS) standards for built-up carbon steel sections only describe a modified slenderness approach, to consider the spacing of the intermediate fasteners. Thus, this paper presents a numerical investigation on the behavior of back-to-back cold-formed stainless-steel built-up lipped channels. Three different grades of stainless steel i.e., duplex EN1.4462, ferritic EN1.4003 and austenitic EN1.4404 have been considered. Effect of screw spacing on the axial strength of such built-up channels was investigated. As expected, most of the short and intermediate columns failed by either local-global or local-distortional buckling interactions, whereas the long columns, failed by global buckling. All three grades of stainless-steel stub columns failed by local buckling. A comprehensive parametric study was then carried out covering a wide range of slenderness and different cross-sectional geometries to assess the performance of the current design guidelines by AISI and AS/NZS. In total, 647 finite element models were analyzed. From the results of the parametric study, it was found that the AISI & AS/NZS are conservative by around 10 to 20% for cold-formed stainless-steel built-up lipped channels failed through overall buckling, irrespective of the stainless-steel grades. However, the AISI and AS/NZS can be un-conservative by around 6% for all three grades of stainless-steel built-up channels, which failed by local buckling.

Key Words
cold-formed stainless-steel; built-up; screw spacing; back-to-back channels; axial strength; finite element analysis

Address
(1) Krishanu Roy, James B.P. Lim:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;
(2) Hieng Ho Lau:
Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.


Abstract
Composite columns made of high strength materials have been used in high-rise construction owing to its excellent structural performance resulting in smaller cross-sectional sizes. However, due to the limited understanding of its structural response, current design codes do not allow the use of high strength materials beyond a certain strength limit. This paper reports additional test data, analytical and numerical studies leading to a new design method to predict the ultimate resistance of composite columns made of high strength steel and high strength concrete. Based on previous study on high strength concrete filled steel tubular members and ongoing work on high strength concrete encased steel columns, this paper provides new findings and presents the feasibility of using high strength steel and high strength concrete for general double symmetric composite columns. A nonlinear finite element model has been developed to capture the composite beam-column behavior. The Eurocode 4 approach of designing composite columns is examined by comparing the test data with results obtained from code's predictions and finite element analysis, from which the validities of the concrete confinement effect and plastic design method are discussed. Eurocode 4 method is found to overestimate the resistance of concrete encased composite columns when ultra-high strength steel is used. Finally, a strain compatibility method is proposed as a modification of existing Eurocode 4 method to give reasonable prediction of the ultimate strength of concrete encased beam-columns with steel strength up to 900 MPa and concrete strength up to 100 MPa.

Key Words
concrete filled columns; concrete encased column; Eurocode 4; high strength steel; high strength concrete; strain compatibility method; tall buildings

Address
(1) Binglin Lai, J.Y. Richard Liew, Mingxiang Xiong:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Blk E1A, #07-03, 1 Engineering Drive 2, 117576, Singapore;
(2) J.Y. Richard Liew:
School of Civil Engineering, NanjingTech University, No. 30 Puzhu Road(S), Nanjing 211816, China;
(3) Mingxiang Xiong:
Protective Structures Centre, School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.


Abstract
The present paper addresses a refined plate theoryin order to describe the response of anti-symmetric cross-ply laminated plates subjected to a uniformlydistributed nonlinear thermo-mechanical loading. In the present theory, the undetermined integral terms are used and the variables number is reduced to four instead of five or more in other higher-order theories. The boundary conditions on the top and the bottom surfaces of the plate are satisfied; hence the use of the transverse shear correction factors isavoided. The principle of virtual work is used to obtain governing equations and boundary conditions. Navier solution for simply supported plates is used to derive analytical solutions. For the validation of the present theory, numerical results for displacements and stressesare compared with those of classical, first-order, higher-order and trigonometricshear theories reported in the literature.

Key Words
anti-symmetric laminated plates; nonlinear thermo-mechanical loading; displacements; stresses

Address
(1) Nasrine Belbachir, Kada Draich, Abdelmoumen Anis Bousahla, Mohamed Bourada, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria;
(2) Kada Draich:
Département de Génie Civil, Université Ibn Khaldoun Tiaret, BP 78Zaaroura, 1400 Tiaret, Algérie;
(3) Abdelmoumen Anis Bousahla:
Centre Universitaire Ahmed Zabana de Relizane, Algeria.
(4) Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia;
(5) M. Mohammadimehr:
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Kashan, Iran.


Abstract
In the present study, vibration analysis of double bonded micro sandwich cylindrical shells with saturated porous core and carbon/boron nitride nanotubes (CNT/BNNT) reinforced composite face sheets under multi-physical loadings based on Cooper-Naghdi theory is investigated. The material properties of the micro structure are assumed to be temperature dependent, and each of the micro-tubes is placed on the Pasternak elastic foundations, and mechanical, moisture, thermal, electrical, and magnetic forces are effective on the structural behavior. The distributions of porous materials in three distributions such as non-linear non-symmetric, nonlinear-symmetric, and uniform are considered. The relationship including electro-magneto-hydro-thermo-mechanical loadings based on modified couple stress theory is obtained and moreover the governing equations of motion using the energy method and the Hamilton\'s principle are derived. Also, Navier\'s type solution is also used to solve the governing equations of motion. The effects of various parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature change, various distributions of nanotube, volume fraction of nanotubes, porosity and Skempton coefficients, and geometric parameters on the natural frequency of double bonded micro sandwich cylindrical shells are investigated. Increasing the porosity and the Skempton coefficients of the core in micro sandwich cylindrical shell lead to increase the natural frequency of the structure. Cylindrical shells and porous materials in the industry of filters and separators, heat exchangers and coolers are widely used and are generally accepted today.

Key Words
free vibration analysis; double-bonded micro sandwich shell; porous media; composite; CNT/BNNT; various physical parameters

Address
(1) Raziye Yazdani, Mehdi Mohammadimehr:
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran;
(2) Ashraf M. Zenkour:
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia;
(3) Ashraf M. Zenkour:
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh 33516, Egypt.


Abstract
This paper presents an experimental work on the post-fire behavior of two kinds of innovative composite stub columns under eccentric compression. The partially precast steel reinforced concrete (PPSRC) column is composed of a precast outer-part cast using steel fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete (RPC) and a cast-in-place inner-part cast using conventional concrete. Based on the PPSRC column, the hollow precast steel reinforced concrete (HPSRC) column has a hollow column core. With the aim to investigate the post-fire performance of these composite columns, six stub column specimens, including three HPSRC stub columns and three PPSRC stub columns, were exposed to the ISO834 standard fire. Then, the cooling specimens and a control specimen unexposed to fire were eccentrically loaded to explore the residual capacity. The test parameters include the section shape, concrete strength of inner-part, eccentricity ratio and heating time. The test results indicated that the precast RPC shell could effectively confine the steel shape and longitudinal reinforcements after fire, and the PPSRC stub columns experienced lower core temperature in fire and exhibited higher post-fire residual strength as compared with the HPSRC stub columns due to the insulating effect of core concrete. The residual capacity increased with the increasing of inner concrete strength and with the decreasing of heating time and load eccentricity. Based on the test results, a FEA model was established to simulate the temperature field of test specimens, and the predicted results agreed well with the test results.

Key Words
precast steel reinforced concrete columns; reactive powder concrete; fire condition; post-fire residual capacity; eccentric compression

Address
(1) Yong Yang, Yicong Xue, Yunlong Yu, Zhichao Gong:
School of Civil Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Shaanxi, China;
(2) Yicong Xue:
School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK;
(3) Yunlong Yu:
Key Lab of Structural Engineering and Earthquake Resistance, Shaanxi, China.


Abstract
The present investigation is concerned with two dimensional deformation in a homogeneous nonlocal thermoelastic solid with two temperature. The nonlocal thermoelastic solid is subjected to inclined load. Laplace and Fourier transforms are used to solve the problem. The bounding surface is subjected to concentrated and distributed sources. The analytical expressions of displacement, stress components, temperature change are obtained in the transformed domain. Numerical inversion technique has been applied to obtain the results in the physical domain. Numerical simulated results are depicted graphically to show the effect of angle of inclination and nonlocal parameter on the components of displacements, stresses and conductive temperature. Some special cases are also deduced from the present investigation

Key Words
thermoelasticity; nonlocality; nonlocal theory of thermoelasticity; Eringen model of nonlocal theories; two temperature

Address
(1) Parveen Lata:
Department of Basicand Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, India;
(2) Sukhveer Singh:
Punjabi University APS Neighbourhood Campus, Dehla Seehan, India.


Abstract
In the present study, microstructure-dependent static stability analysis of inhomogeneous tapered micro-columns is performed. It is considered that the micro column is made of functionally graded materials and has a variable cross-section. The material and geometrical properties of micro column vary continuously throughout the axial direction. Euler-Bernoulli beam and modified couple stress theories are used to model the nonhomogeneous micro column with variable cross section. Rayleigh-Ritz solution method is implemented to obtain the critical buckling loads for various parameters. A detailed parametric study is performed to examine the influences of taper ratio, material gradation, length scale parameter, and boundary conditions. The validity of the present results is demonstrated by comparing them with some related results available in the literature. It can be emphasized that the size-dependency on the critical buckling loads is more prominent for bigger length scale parameter-to-thickness ratio and changes in the material gradation and taper ratio affect significantly the values of critical buckling loads.

Key Words
critical buckling load; size dependency; variable cross section; axially functionally graded materials; Rayleigh-Ritz method

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey.


Abstract
A number of desirable characteristics concerning excellent durability, aesthetics, recyclability, high ductility and fire resistance have made stainless steel a preferred option in engineering practice. However, the relatively high initial cost has greatly restricted the application of stainless steel as a major structural material in general construction. This drawback can be partially overcome by introducing composite stainless steel-concrete structures, which provides a cost-efficient and sustainable solution for future stainless steel construction. This paper presents a preliminary numerical study on stainless steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with bolted flush endplates. In order to ensure a consistent corrosion resistance within the whole structural system, all structural steel components were designed with austenitic stainless steel, including beams, columns, endplates, bolts, reinforcing bars and shear connectors. A finite element model was developed using ABAQUS software for composite beam-to-column joints under monotonic and symmetric hogging moments, while validation was performed based on independent test results. A parametric study was subsequently conducted to investigate the effects of several critical factors on the behaviour of composite stainless steel joints. Finally, comparisons were made between the numerical results and the predictions by current design codes regarding the plastic moment capacity and the rotational stiffness of the joints. It was concluded that the present codes of practice generally overestimate the rotational stiffness and underestimate the plastic moment resistance of stainless steel-concrete composite joints.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite structure; stainless steel; beam-to-column joint; bolted flush endplate connection; finite element analysis; parametric study; design code

Address
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.



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