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CONTENTS
Volume 29, Number 6, December25 2018
 

Abstract
Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a principal cause of deterioration of RC columns. Making these corrosion-damaged columns conform to new safety regulations and functions is a tremendous technological challenge. This study presented an experimental investigation on steel-concrete jacketed corrosion-damaged RC columns. The influences of steel jacket thickness and concrete strength on the enhancement performance of the strengthened specimens were investigated. The results showed that the use of steel-concrete jacketing is efficient since the stub strengthened columns behaved in a more ductile manner. Moreover, the ultimate strength of the corrosion-damaged RC columns is increased by an average of 5.3 times, and the ductility is also significantly improved by the strengthening method. The bearing capacity of the strengthening columns increases with the steel tube thickness increasing, and the strengthening concrete strength has a positive impact on both bearing capacity, whereas a negative influence on the ductility. Subsequently, a numerical model was developed to predict the behavior of the retrofitted columns. The model takes into account corrosion-damage of steel rebar and confining enhancement supplied by the steel tube. Comparative results with the experimental results indicated that the developed numerical model is an effective simulation. Based on extensive verified numerical studies, a design equation was proposed and found to predict well the ultimate eccentric strength of the strengthened columns.

Key Words
steel-concrete jacketing; corrosion-damage; retrofit; eccentric compression

Address
Jiyue Hu, Hongjun Liang and Yiyan Lu

Abstract
Rapid detection of damages in civil engineering structures, in order to assess their possible disorders and as a result produce competent decision making, are crucial to ensure their health and ultimately enhance the level of public safety. In traditional intelligent health monitoring methods, the features are manually extracted depending on prior knowledge and diagnostic expertise. Inspired by the idea of unsupervised feature learning that uses artificial intelligence techniques to learn features from raw data, a two-stage learning method is proposed here for intelligent health monitoring of civil engineering structures. In the first stage, Nyström method is used for automatic feature extraction from structural vibration signals. In the second stage, Moving Kernel Principal Component Analysis (MKPCA) is employed to classify the health conditions based on the extracted features. In this paper, KPCA has been implemented in a new form as Moving KPCA for effectively segmenting large data and for determining the changes, as data are continuously collected. Numerical results revealed that the proposed health monitoring system has a satisfactory performance for detecting the damage scenarios of a three-story frame aluminum structure. Furthermore, the enhanced version of KPCA methods exhibited a significant improvement in sensitivity, accuracy, and effectiveness over conventional methods.

Key Words
damage detection; unsupervised feature learning; moving kernel principal component analysis; Nyström method

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

Abstract
This paper presents the flexural performance of steel beam-to-column joints composed of hollow structural section beams and columns. A finite element (FE) model was developed incorporating geometrical and material nonlinearities to evaluate the behaviour of joints subjected to bending moments. The numerical outcomes were validated with experimental results and compared with EN1993-1-8. The demountability of the structure was discussed based on the tested specimen. A parametric analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of steel yield strength, end-plate thickness, beam thickness, column wall thickness, bolt diameter, number of bolts and location. Consequently, an analytical model was derived based on the component method to predict the moment-rotation relationships for the sub-assemblies with extended end-plates. The accuracy of the proposed model was calibrated by the experimental and numerical results. It is found that the FE model is fairly reliable to predict the initial stiffness and moment capacity of the joints, while EN1993-1-8 overestimates the initial stiffness extensively. The beam-to-column joints are shown to be demountable and reusable with a moment up to 53% of the ultimate moment capacity. The end-plate thickness and column wall thickness have a significant influence on the joint behaviour, and the layout of double bolt-rows in tension is recommended for joints with extended end-plates. The derived analytical model is capable of predicting the moment-rotation relationship of the structure.

Key Words
hollow section; beam-to-column joint; moment-rotation relationship; demountability; component method

Address
(1) Jia Wang, Haiming Zhu:
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New SouthWales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia;
(2) Jia Wang, Brian Uy, Dongxu Li:
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia;
(3) Vipulkumar Patel:
School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia;
(4) Farhad Aslani:
School of Civil Environmental and Mining Engineering, The University ofWestern Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia;
(5) Farhad Aslani:
School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, WA 6027, Australia.

Abstract
In this paper, the cyclic behavior of steel beam-concrete encased steel (CES) column joints was investigated experimentally and numerically. Three frame middle joint samples with varying concrete slab widths were constructed. Anti-symmetrical low-frequency cyclic load was applied at two beam ends to simulate the earthquake action. The failure modes, hysteretic behavior, ultimate load, stiffness degradation, load carrying capacity degradation, displacement ductility and strain response were investigated in details. The three composite joints exhibited excellent seismic performance in experimental tests, showing high load-carrying capacity, good ductility and superior energy dissipation ability. All three joint samples reached their ultimate loads due to shear failure. Numerical results from ABAQUS modelling agreed well with the test results. Finally, the effect of the concrete slab on ultimate load was analyzed through a parametric study on concrete strength, slab thickness, as well as slab width. Numerical simulation showed that slab width and thickness played an important role in the load-carrying capacity of such joints. As a comparison, the influence of concrete grade was not significant.

Key Words
beam-column joint; concrete encased steel (CES) column; steel beam with concrete slabs; cyclic loads; shear capacity; moment capacity

Address
(1) Liusheng Chu, Jun Zhao:
School of Civil Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zheng Zhou, Henan Province, China;
(2) Danda Li, Xing Ma:
School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Abstract
This article derived a hybrid coupling technique using the higher-order displacement polynomial and three soft computing techniques (teaching learning-based optimization, particle swarm optimization, and artificial bee colony) to predict the optimal stacking sequence of the layered structure and the corresponding frequency values. The higher-order displacement kinematics is adopted for the mathematical model derivation considering the necessary stress and stain continuity and the elimination of shear correction factor. A nine noded isoparametric Lagrangian element (eighty-one degrees of freedom at each node) is engaged for the discretisation and the desired model equation derived via the classical Hamilton\'s principle. Subsequently, three soft computing techniques are employed to predict the maximum natural frequency values corresponding to their optimum layer sequences via a suitable home-made computer code. The finite element convergence rate including the optimal solution stability is established through the iterative solutions. Further, the predicted optimal stacking sequence including the accuracy of the frequency values are verified with adequate comparison studies. Lastly, the derived hybrid models are explored further to by solving different numerical examples for the combined structural parameters (length to width ratio, length to thickness ratio and orthotropicity on frequency and layer-sequence) and the implicit behavior discuss in details.

Key Words
laminated composite; TLBO; PSO; ABC; HSDT; optimization

Address
(1) Arijit Das, Chetan K. Hirwani, Subrata K. Panda:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela: 769008, India;
(2) Umut Topal:
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey;
(3) Tayfun Dede:
Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Abstract
In the present investigation, by using the two numerical methods, free vibration analysis of laminated annular and annular sector plates have been studied. In order to obtain the main equations two different shell theories such as Love\'s shell theory and first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) have been used for modeling. After obtaining the fundamental equations in briefly, the methods of harmonic differential quadrature (HDQ) and discrete singular convolution (DSC) are used to solve the equation of motion. Accuracy, convergence and reliability of the present HDQ and DSC methods were tested by comparing the existing results obtained by different methods in the literature. The effects of some geometric and material properties of the plates are investigated via these two methods. The advantages and accuracy of the HDQ and DSC methods have also been examined with different grid numbers and shell theory. Some results for laminated annular plates and laminated circular plates were also been supplied.

Key Words
laminated composites; annular plate; circular plate; differential quadrature; discrete singular convolution

Address
Akdeniz University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, Division of Mechanics, 07058, Antalya-Turkey

Abstract
In this paper, topology optimization (TO) is applied to find a new configuration for the perforated steel plate shear wall (PSPSW) based on the maximization of reaction forces as the objective function. An infill steel plate is introduced based on an experimental model for TO. The TO is conducted using the sensitivity analysis, the method of moving asymptotes and SIMP method. TO is done using a nonlinear analysis (geometry and material) considering the buckling. The final area of the optimized plate is equal to 50% of the infill plate. Three plate thicknesses and three length-to-height ratios are defined and their effects are investigated in the TO. It indicates the plate thickness has no significant impact on the optimization results. The nonlinear behavior of optimized plates under cyclic loading is studied and the strength, energy and fracture tendency of them are investigated. Also, four steel plates including infill plate, a plate with a central circle and two types of the multi-circle plate are introduced with equal plate volume for comparing with the results of the optimized plate.

Key Words
topology optimization; steel plate shear wall; moment frame; sensitivity-based method; method of moving asymptotes; SIMP method; perforated plate

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
In this paper, two different computational methods, called Rayleigh-Ritz and collocation are developed to estimate the ultimate strength of composite plates. Progressive damage behavior of moderately thick composite laminated plates is studied under in-plane compressive load and uniform lateral pressure. The formulations of both methods are based on the concept of the principle of minimum potential energy. First order shear deformation theory and the assumption of large deflections are used to develop the equilibrium equations of laminated plates. Therefore, Newton-Raphson technique will be used to solve the obtained system of nonlinear algebraic equations. In Rayleigh-Ritz method, two degradation models called complete and region degradation models are used to estimate the degradation zone around the failure location. In the second method, a new energy based collocation technique is introduced in which the domain of the plate is discretized into the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points. In this new method, in addition to the two previous models, the new model named node degradation model will also be used in which the material properties of the area just around the failed node are reduced. To predict the failure location, Hashin failure criteria have been used and the corresponding material properties of the failed zone are reduced instantaneously. Approximation of the displacement fields is performed by suitable harmonic functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method and by Legendre basis functions (LBFs) in the second method. Finally, the results will be calculated and discussions will be conducted on the methods.

Key Words
ultimate strength; Hashin failure criteria; collocation; Rayleigh-Ritz; composite plate; Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto nodes; geometric nonlinear analysis

Address
Aerospace Engineering Department, Faculty of New Technologies and Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C, Tehran, Iran.


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