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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 4, December 2022
 


Abstract
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Key Words
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Address
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Abstract
The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of commercial fuel cell (rated capacity 1000W) with the help of resistive load and output power variation with change in H2 flow rate and calculate the maximum power point (MPP) of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) while changing AC and DC load respectively. The factors influencing the output power of a fuel cell are hydrogen flow rate, cell temperature, and membrane water content. The results show that when the H2 flow rate is changed from 11, 13, and 15 Lpm, MPP is increased from lower to higher flow rate. The power of the fuel cell is increased at the rate of 29% by increasing the flow rate from 11 to 15 lpm. This study will allow small-scale industries and residential buildings (in remote or inaccessible areas) to characterize the performance of PEMFC. Furthermore, fuel cell helps in reducing emission in the environment compared to fossil fuels. Also, fuel cells are ecofriendly as well as cost effective and can be the best alternative way to convert energy.

Key Words
hydrogen flow rate; MPP; PEM fuel cell; performance characteristics

Address
Shubhaditya Kumar: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110 042, India
Pranshu Shrivastava: Thammasat University Research Unit in Bioenergy and Catalysis, Thammasat University,
Klongluang, Pathumthani-12120, Thailand
Anil Kumar:Centre for Energy and Environment, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110 042, India

Abstract
Our overdependence on the limited supply of fossil fuel with the burden of emission as a consequence of its utilization has been a major concern. Biodiesel is emerging as a potential diesel substitution for its similar performance, with the additional benefits of emitting lesser emissions. Due to the easy availability of feedstock for Biogas production, Biogas is studied for its use in CI engines. In this study, we considered Linseed Biodiesel and Biogas to run on dual fuel mode in a CI engine. An energy and exergy analysis was conducted to study the rate of fuel energy and exergy transformation to various other processes. Exergy relocation to exhaust gases was observed to be an average of 5% more for dual fuel mode than the diesel mode, whereas exergy relocation to the diesel mode was observed to be more than the dual fuel modes. Also, exergy loss to exhaust gas is observed to be more than the exergy transferred to cooling water or shaft. The exergy efficiency observed for biodiesel-biogas mode is only lesser by 3% compared to diesel-biogas mode, suggesting Biodiesel can be a substitute fuel for diesel.

Key Words
biodiesel; biogas; dual fuel; efficiency; energy; exergy

Address
S. Lalhriatpuia and Amit Pal: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technology University, Delhi 110042, India

Abstract
An ex-situ gravitational fixed bed pyrolysis reactor was used over Al2O3 supported Ni2P based catalyst with various Ni/P molar ratios (0.5-2.0) and constant nickel loading of 5.37 mmol/g Al2O3 to determine the hydrodeoxygenation of rubberwood sawdust (RWS) at atmospheric pressure. The 3D catalysts formed were characterized structurally as well as acidic properties were determined by hydrogen-temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The Ni2P phase formed completely on Al2O3 for 1.5 Ni/P ratio, although lesser crystallite sizes of Ni2P were seen at Ni/P ratios less than 1.5. Additionally, it was shown that when nickel loading level increased, acidity increased and specific surface area dropped, probably because nickel phosphate is not easily converted to Ni2P. When Ni/P ratio was 1.5, Ni2P phase fully formed on Al2O3. The catalytic activity was explained in terms of impacts of reaction temperature and Ni/P molar ratio. At relatively high temperature of 450C the high-value deoxygenated produce was predominantly composed of n-alkanes. Based on the findings, it was suggested that hydrogenolysis, hydrodeoxygenation, dehydration, decarbonylation, and hydrogenation are all part of mechanism underlying hydrotreatment of RWS. In conclusion, the synthesized Ni2P/ Al2O3 catalyst was capable of deoxygenating RWS with ease at atmospheric pressure, primarily resulting in long chained (C9-C24) hydrocarbons and acetic acid.

Key Words
3D catalyst; catalytic pyrolysis; hydrodeoxygenation; nickel phosphide; rubberwood sawdust

Address
Pranshu Shrivastava: Thammasat University Research Unit in Bioenergy and Catalysis, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani, Thailand-12120

Abstract
Biodiesel is a non-polluting and non-toxic energy source that can replace conventional diesel. However, the higher production cost and raw material scarcity became challenges that obstruct the commercialization of biodiesel production. In the current investigation, fried cooking oil is used for biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor, thus enhancing raw material availability and helping better waste oil disposal. However, due to the cavitation effect inside the reactor, the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor can give biodiesel yield above 98%. Thus, the use of orifice plates (having a different number of holes for cavitation) in the reactor shows more than 90% biodiesel yield within 10 mins of a time interval. The effects of rising temperature at different molar ratios are also investigated. The five-hole plate achieves the highest yield for a 4.5:1 molar ratio at 65C. And the similar result is predicted by the response surface methodology model; however, the optimized yield is obtained at 60C. The investigation will help understand the effect of hydrodynamic cavitation on biodiesel yield at different molar ratios and elevated temperatures.

Key Words
biodiesel; free fatty acid; fried cooking oil; hydrodynamic cavitation; orifice plate

Address
Neeraj Budhraja and R.S. Mishra: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi- 110042, India

Abstract
The hybrid wind-solar energy concept has a big influence on the spread of wind and solar power projects in India since it combines the benefits of both industries while also providing extra benefits such as resource sharing such as land, infrastructure, and power evacuation systems. Furthermore, while the hybrid policy may reduce certain barriers to the installation of wind and solar energy in India, there are still some issues that must be resolved rapidly in order to ensure a sustainable installation. According to the study's findings, the installation of wind and solar power plants is significantly influenced by energy policy. The wind-solar hybrid energy strategy will also be crucial in the near future for growing the usage of renewable energy sources. Aside from that, the establishment of Green Energy Open Access (GEOA) and the restart of the trading of Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) would promote the quick deployment of standalone and hybrid renewable power projects throughout the nation, enabling it to reach 500 GW of installed non-fossil energy capacity by 2030.

Key Words
green energy open access; policy; renewable energy certificates; solar energy; wind energy

Address
Hardik K. Jani, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha and Garlapati Nagababu: School of Technology, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
Alok Das: Suzlon Energy Limited, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Abstract
This paper deals with the effects of design (active area, current density, membrane conductivity) and operating parameters (temperature, relative humidity) on the performance of hydrogen-fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The design parameter of a PEM fuel cell with the active area of the single cell considered in this study is 25 cm2 (5 x 5). The operating voltage and current density of the fuel cell were 0.7 V and 0.5 A/cm2 respectively. The variations of activation voltage, ohmic voltage, and concentration voltage with respect to current density are analyzed in detail. The membrane conductivity with variable relative humidity is also analyzed. The results show that the maximum activation overpotential of the fuel cell was 0.4358 V at 0.21 A/cm2 due to slow reaction kinetics. The calculated ohmic and concentrated overpotential in the fuel cell was 0.01395 V at 0.76 A/cm2 and 0.027 V at 1.46 A/cm2 respectively.

Key Words
activation; concentration; hydrogen; ohmic; PEM fuel cell

Address
Rohan Kumar and K.A Subramanian: Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016, India

Abstract
In this study, a product gas yield and carbon conversion were measured during the coal pyrolysis. The pyrolysis process occurred under two different atmospheres such as subcritical (45 bar, 10C) and supercritical CO2 condition (80 bar, 35C). Under the same pressure (80 bar), the atmosphere temperature increased from 35C to 45C to further examine temperature effect on the pyrolysis at supercritical CO2 condition. For all three cases, a power input supplied to heating wire placed below coal bed was controlled to make coal bed temperature constant. The phase change of CO2 atmosphere and subsequent pyrolysis behaviors of coal bed were observed using high-resolution camcorder. The pressure and temperature in the reactor were controlled by a CO2 pump and heater. Then, the coal bed was heated by wire heater to proceed the pyrolysis under supercritical CO2 condition.

Key Words
coal pyrolysis; phase change; product gas yield; P-T diagram; Supercritical CO2 (ScCO2)

Address
Hakduck Kim: Graduate School of Convergence for Clean Energy Integrated Power Generation,
Pusan National University, Republic of Korea
Jeongmin Choi, Heechang Lim and Juhun Song: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Republic of Korea



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