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CONTENTS
Volume 18, Number 5, May 2020
 

Abstract
In traditional eccentrically braced steel frames, damages and plastic deformations are limited to the links and the main structure members are required tremendous sizes to ensure elasticity with no damage based on the force-based seismic design method, this limits the practical application of the structure. The high strength steel frames with eccentric braces refer to Q345 (the nominal yield strength is 345 MPa) steel used for links, and Q460 steel utilized for columns and beams in the eccentrically brace steel frames, the application of high strength steels not only brings out better economy and higher strength, but also wider application prospects in seismic fortification zone. Here, the structures with four type eccentric braces are chosen, including K-type, Y-type, D-type and V-type. These four types EBFs have various performances, such as stiffness, bearing capacity, ductility and failure mode. To evaluate the seismic behavior of the high strength steel frames with variable eccentric braces within the similar performance objectives, four types EBFs with 4-storey, 8-storey, 12-storey and 16-storey were designed by performance-based seismic design method. The nonlinear static behavior by pushover analysis and dynamic performance by time history analysis in the SAP2000 software was applied. A total of 11 ground motion records are adopted in the time history analysis. Ground motions representing three seismic hazards: first, elastic behavior in low earthquake hazard level for immediate occupancy, second, inelastic behavior of links in moderate earthquake hazard level for rapid repair, and third, inelastic behavior of the whole structure in very high earthquake hazard level for collapse prevention. The analyses results indicated that all structures have similar failure mode and seismic performance.

Key Words
eccentrically braced steel frames; high strength steel; performance-based seismic design; seismic hazard

Address
Shen Li, Ze-yu Wang, Hong-chao Guo : School of Civil Engineering and architecture, Xi

Abstract
Past earthquakes experience shows that serious damage or collapse of buildings have dramatically accrued when sufficient separation distance has not been provided between two adjacent structures. The majority of past studies related to the pounding topic indicate that obtaining the gap size between two buildings is able to prevent collision and impact hazards during seismic excitations. Considering minimization of building collisions, some relationships have been suggested to determine the separation distance between adjacent buildings. Commonly, peak lateral displacement, fundamental period and natural damping as well as structural height of two adjacent buildings are numerically considered to determine the critical distance. Hence, the aim of present study is to focus on all mentioned parameters and also utilizing the main characteristic of earthquake record i.e. PGA to examine the lateral displacement of irregular structures close to each other and also estimate the sufficient separation distance between them. Increasing and decreasing the separation distance is inherently caused economical problems due to the land ownership from a legal perspective and pounding hazard as well. Therefore, a new equation is proposed to determine the optimum critical distance. The accuracy of the proposed formula is validated by different models and various earthquake records.

Key Words
Pounding; critical distance; fundamental period; damping; peak displacement

Address
Adel Loghmani: Civil Engineering Department, Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran
Alireza Mortezaei and Ali Hemmati: Seismic Geotechnical and High Performance Concrete Research Centre, Civil Engineering Department,
Semnan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract
The main objective of seismic codes is to prevent structural collapse and ensure life safety. Collapse probability of a structure is usually assessed by making a series of analytical model assumptions. This paper investigates the effect of finite element modeling (FEM) assumptions on the estimated collapse capacity of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame building and points out the modeling limitations. Widely used element formulations and hysteresis models are considered in the analysis. A full-scale, three-story RC frame building was utilized as the experimental model. Alternative finite element models are established by adopting a range of different modeling strategies. Using each model, the collapse capacity of the structure is evaluated via Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA). Results indicate that the analytically estimated collapse capacities are significantly sensitive to the utilized modeling approaches. Furthermore, results also show that models that represent stiffness degradation lead to a better correlation between the actual and analytical responses. Results of this study are expected to be useful for in developing proper models for assessing the collapse probability of RC frame structures

Key Words
time history analyses; collapse capacity; incremental dynamic analysis (IDA); RC buildings

Address
Saeed Ghaemian: Department of Earthquake Engineering, Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Management Institute,
Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Ziya Muderrisoglu : Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey
Ufuk Yazgan: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey


Abstract
In this paper, irregularly designed planar reinforced concrete wall structures are investigated computationally. For this purpose, structures consisting of four regular and irregular models of short-order (two-class) and intermediate (five-class) types have been investigated. The probabilistic evaluation of seismic damage of these structures has been performed by using the incremental inelastic dynamic analysis to produce the seismic fragility curve at different levels of damage. The fragility curves are based on two classes of maximum damage indices and the Jeong-Nansha three-dimensional damage index. It was found that there is a significant increase in damage probability in irregular structures compared to regular ones. The rate of increase was higher in moderate and extensive damage levels. Also, the amount of damage calculated using the two damage indices shows that the Jeong-Nensha three-dimensional damage index in these types of structures provides superior results.

Key Words
mainshock and aftershock; plan-irregularity; non parallel system irregularity; seismic performance; shear wall

Address
Yan Cao: School of Mechatronic Engineering, Xi

Abstract
This paper aims to investigate the seismic behavior and influence parameters of the large-scaled thin-walled reinforced concrete (RC) tubular columns in air-cooled supporting structures of thermal power plants (TPPs). Cyclic loading tests and finite element analysis were performed on 1/8-scaled specimens considering the influence of wall diameter ratio, axial compression ratio, longitudinal reinforcement ratio, stirrup reinforcement ratio and adding steel diagonal braces (SDBs). The research results showed that the cracks mainly occurred on the lower half part of RC tubular columns during the cyclic loading test; the specimen with the minimum wall diameter ratio presented the earlier cracking and had the most cracks; the failure mode of RC tubular columns was large bias compression failure; increasing the axial compression ratio could increase the lateral bearing capacity and energy dissipation capacity, but also weaken the ductility and aggravate the lateral stiffness deterioration; increasing the longitudinal reinforcement ratio could efficiently enhance the seismic behavior; increasing the stirrup reinforcement ratio was favorable to the ductility; RC tubular columns with SDBs had a much higher bearing capacity and lateral stiffness than those without SDBs, and with the decrease of the angle between columns and SDBs, both bearing capacity and lateral stiffness increased significantly.

Key Words
thermal power plant (TPP); RC tubular column; seismic behavior; cyclic loading test; parametric analysis

Address
Bo Wang, Ke Yang, Chaogang Qin: School of Civil Engineering, Chang

Abstract
This paper deals with the experimental investigation on the behavior of RCS beam-column exterior joints. Two full-scale specimens of joints between reinforced concrete columns and steel beams are tested under cyclic loading. The objective of the test is to study the effect of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) on the seismic behavior of RCS joints. The load bearing capacity, story drift capacity, ductility, energy dissipation, and stiffness degradation of specimens are evaluated. The experimental results point out that the FRC joint is increased 20% of load carrying capacity and 30% of energy dissipation capacity in comparison with the RC joint. Besides, the FRC joint shown lower damage and better ductility than RC joint.

Key Words
RCS joint; steel fiber reinforced concrete; cyclic load; seismic behavior

Address
Xuan Huy Nguyen, Dang Dung Le,Hoang Quan Nguyen
: Faculty of Construction Engineering, University of Transport and Communications, Vietnam
Quang-Huy Nguyen : Department of Civil Engineering and Urban Planning, INSA de Rennes, France

Abstract
This paper presents a displacement-based seismic design procedure for new structures with fluid viscous dampers and/or for existing structures, where these devices are required as a retrofit measure and damage control. To consider the non-proportional damping produced by these devices in a conventional modal spectral analysis, the effect of the fluid viscous dampers is approximated as the sum of a proportional damping matrix and a complementary matrix which is representative of non-proportional damping matrix. To illustrate the application of this procedure and evaluate the performance of structures designed with the procedure proposed, five regular plane frames: 8, 12, 17, 20 and 25-storey, and an 8-storey building are designed. The seismic demands used for design and validation were the records obtained at the SCT site during the 1985 Michoacan earthquake, and that of the 2017 Morelos - Puebla earthquake obtained at the Culhuacan site, both stations located on soft soil sites. To validate the procedure proposed, the performances and damage distributions used as design targets were compared with the corresponding results from the nonlinear step-by-step analyses of the designed structures subjected to the same seismic demands.

Key Words
displacement-based seismic design; damage control; linear fluid viscous dampers; non-proportional damping approximation; modal spectral analysis

Address
Francisco H. Bañuelos-García, Gustavo Ayala : 1Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 CDMX, México
Saúl López: Facultad de Estudios Superiores de Acatlán, UNAM, Naucalpan, 53150 Edo. de México, México

Abstract
Suspension bridges have the extended in plan configuration which makes them prone to dynamic events like earthquake. The longer span lead to more flexibility and slender of them. So, control systems seem to be essential in order to protect them against ground motion excitation. Tuned mass damper or in brief TMD is a passive control system that its efficiency is practically proven. Moreover, its parameters i.e. mass ratio, tuning frequency and damping ratio can be optimized in a manner providing the best performance. Meta-heuristic optimization algorithm is a powerful tool to gain this aim. In this study, TMD parameters are optimized in different-length suspension bridges in three distinct cases including 3, 4 and 5 TMDs by observer-teacher-learner based algorithm under a complete set of ground motions formed from both near-field and far-field instances. The Vincent Thomas, Tacoma Narrows and Golden Gate suspension bridges are selected for case studies as short, mean and long span ones, respectively. The results indicate that All cases of used TMDs result in response reduction and case 4TMD can be more suitable for bridges in near and far-field conditions.

Key Words
suspension bridge, tuned mass damper, meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, near-field ground motions, far-field ground motions

Address
Hamed Alizadeh and H.H. Lavasani: Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi university, No.43. South Mofatteh Ave., Iran

Abstract
In this study, a new steel cylindrical shell configuration of the dissipative energy device is proposed to improve lateral ductility and to reduce the damage of the structures against seismic forces. Four nested-eccentric- cylindrical shells are used to constructing this device; therefore, this proposed device is named nested-eccentric-cylindrical shells damper (NECSD). The particular configuration of the nested-eccentric-cylindrical shells is applied to promote the mechanical characteristics, stability, and overall performance of the damper in cyclic loads. Shell-type components are performed as a combination of series and parallel non-linear springs into the in-plan plastic deformation. Numerical analysis with respect to dimensional variables are used to calculate the mechanical characteristics of the NECSD, and full-scale testing is conducted for verifying the numerical results. The parametric study shows the NECSD with thin shells were more flexible, while devices with thick shells were more capacious. The results from numerical and experimental studies indicate that the NECSD has a stable behavior in hysteretic loops with highly ductile performance, and can provide appropriate dissipated energy under cyclic loads.

Key Words
dampers; energy dissipation; finite element method; hysteretic damper; structural control

Address
Alireza Reisi: Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Hamid Reza Mirdamadi : Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
Mohammad Ali Rahgozar: Department of Civil Engineering and Transportation, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract
One of the most important issues in structural systems is evaluation of the margin of safety in low and mid-rise buildings against the progressive collapse mechanism due to the earthquake loads. In this paper, modeling of collapse propagation in structural elements of RC frame buildings is evaluated by tracing down the collapse points in beam and column structural elements, one after another, under earthquake loads and the influence of column removal is investigated on how the collapse expansion in beam and column structural members. For this reason, progressive collapse phenomenon is studied in 3-story and 5-story intermediate moment resisting frame buildings due to the corner and edge column removal in presence of the earthquake loads. In this way, distribution and propagation of the collapse in progressive collapse mechanism is studied, from the first element of the structure to the collapse of a large part of the building with investigating and comparing the results of nonlinear time history analyses (NLTHA) in presence of two-component accelograms proposed by FEMA_P695. Evaluation of the results, including the statistical survey of the number and sequence of the collapsed points in process of the collapse distribution in structural system, show that the progressive collapse distribution are special and similar in low-rise and mid-rise RC buildings due to the simultaneous effects of the column removal and the earthquake loads and various patterns of the progressive collapse distribution are proposed and presented to predict the collapse propagation in structural elements of similar buildings. So, the results of collapse distribution patterns and comparing the values of collapse can be utilized to provide practical methods in codes and guidelines to enhance the structural resistance against the progressive collapse mechanism and eventually, the value of damage can be controlled and minimized in similar buildings.

Key Words
progressive collapse mechanism, collapse distribution, nonlinear time history analysis, intermediate moment resisting frame building

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran


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