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CONTENTS
Volume 17, Number 2, August 2019
 

Abstract
Structural control systems have uncertainties in their structural parameters and control devices which by using reliability analysis, uncertainty can be modeled. In this paper, reliability of controlled structures equipped with semi-active Magneto-Rheological (MR) dampers is investigated. For this purpose, at first, the effect of the structural parameters and damper parameters on the reliability of the seismic responses are evaluated. Then, the reliability of MR damper force is considered for expected levels of performance. For sensitivity analysis of the parameters exist in Bouc- Wen model for predicting the damper force, the importance vector is utilized. The improved first-order reliability method (FORM), is used to reliability analysis. As a case study, an 11-story shear building equipped with 3 MR dampers is selected and numerically obtained experimental data of a 1000 kN MR damper is assumed to study the reliability of the MR damper performance for expected levels. The results show that the standard deviation of random variables affects structural reliability as an uncertainty factor. Thus, the effect of uncertainty existed in the structural model parameters on the reliability of the structure is more than the uncertainty in the damper parameters. Also, the reliability analysis of the MR damper performance show that to achieve the highest levels of nominal capacity of the damper, the probability of failure is greatly increased. Furthermore, by using sensitivity analysis, the Bouc-Wen model parameters which have great importance in predicting damper force can be identified.

Key Words
semi-active control; reliability analysis; uncertainty; MR damper

Address
Ali Hadidi, Bahman Farahmand Azar and Sina Shirgir: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
Motivated by a simpler and more compact hybrid active tuned mass damper (ATMD) system with wide frequency spacing (i.e., high robustness) but not reducing the effectiveness using the least number of ATMD units, the active tuned tandem mass dampers (ATTMD) have been proposed to attenuate undesirable oscillations of structures under the ground acceleration. Likewise, it is expected that the frequency spacing of the ATTMD is comparable to that of the active multiple tuned mass dampers (AMTMD) or the multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD). In accordance with the mode generalised system in the specific vibration mode being controlled (simply referred herein to as the structure), the closed-form expression of the dimensionless displacement variances has been derived for the structure with the attached ATTMD. The criterion for the optimum searching may then be determined as minimization of the dimensionless displacement variances. Employing the gradient-based optimization technique, the effects of varying key parameters on the performance of the ATTMD have been scrutinized in order to probe into its superiority. Meanwhile, for the purpose of a systematic comparison, the optimum results of two active tuned mass dampers (two ATMDs), two tuned mass dampers (two TMDs) without the linking damper, and the TTMD are included into consideration. Subsequent to work in the frequency domain, a real-time Simulink implementation of dynamic analysis of the structure with the ATTMD under earthquakes is carried out to verify the findings of effectiveness and stroke in the frequency domain. Results clearly show that the findings in the time domain support the ones in the frequency domain. The whole work demonstrates that ATTMD outperforms two ATMDs, two TMDs, and TTMD. Thereinto, a wide frequency spacing feature of the ATTMD is its highlight, thus deeming it a high robustness control device. Furthermore, the ATTMD system only needs the linking dashpot, thus embodying its simplicity.

Key Words
structural vibration control; active tuned tandem mass dampers; closed-form dimensionless displacement variances; frequency spacing; optimization; ground acceleration

Address
Chunxiang Li and Liyuan Cao: Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444, P. R. China

Abstract
For Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF), it is common that the damage concentrates at a certain story instead of spreading over all stories. Once the damage occurs, the soft-story mechanism is likely to take place and possibly to result in the failure of the whole system with more damage accumulation. In this study, we use a strongback column which is an additional structural component extending along the height of the building, to redistribute the excessive deformation of SCBF and activate more structural members to dissipate energy and thus avoid damage concentration and improve the seismic performance of SCBF. We tested one-third-scaled, three-story, double-story X SCBF specimens with static cyclic loading procedure. Three specimens, namely S73, S42 and S0, which represent different combinations of stiffness and strength factors a and B for the strongback columns, were designed based on results of numerical simulations. Specimens S73 and S42 were the specimens with the strongback columns, and S0 is the specimen without the strongback column. Test results show that the deformation distribution of Specimen S73 is more uniform and more brace members in three stories perform nonlinearly. Comparing Drift Concentration Factor (DCF), we can observe 29% and 11% improvement in Specimen S73 and S42, respectively. This improvement increases the nonlinear demand of the third-story braces and reduces that of the first-story braces where the demand used to be excessive, and, therefore, postpones the rupture of the first-story braces and enhances the ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the whole SCBF system.

Key Words
special concentrically braced frame; soft story; strongback column; static cyclic loading; drift concentration factor; energy dissipation capacity

Address
Chui-Hsin Chen, Yi-Rung Tsai and Yao Tang: Department of Civil Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Rd. Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan

Abstract
The aim of the study is to show the results of complex shaking table experimental investigation focused on the response of two models of cylindrical steel tanks under mining tremors and moderate earthquakes, including the aspects of diagnosis of structural damage. Firstly, the impact and the sweep-sine tests have been carried out, so as to determine the dynamic properties of models filled with different levels of liquid. Then, the models have been subjected to seismic and paraseismic excitations. Finally, one fully filled structure has been tested after introducing two different types of damages, so as to verify the method of damage diagnosis. The results of the impact and the sweep-sine tests show that filling the models with liquid leads to substantial reduction in natural frequencies, due to gradually increasing overall mass. Moreover, the results of sweep-sine tests clearly indicate that the increase in the liquid level results in significant increase in the damping structural ratio, which is the effect of damping properties of liquid due to its sloshing. The results of seismic and paraseismic tests indicate that filling the tank with liquid leads initially to considerable reduction in values of acceleration (damping effect of liquid sloshing); however, beyond a certain level of water filling, this regularity is inverted and acceleration values increase (effect of increasing total mass of the structure). Moreover, comparison of the responses under mining tremors and moderate earthquakes indicate that the power amplification factor of the mining tremors may be larger than the seismic power amplification factor. Finally, the results of damage diagnosis of fully filled steel tank model indicate that the forms of the Fourier spectra, together with the frequency and power spectral density values, can be directly related to the specific type of structural damage. They show a decrease in the natural frequencies for the model with unscrewed support bolts (global type of damage), while cutting the welds (local type of damage) has resulted in significant increase in values of the power spectral density for higher vibration modes.

Key Words
cylindrical steel tanks; experimental investigation; shaking table; mining tremors; moderate earthquakes; damage diagnosis

Address
Daniel Burkacki and Robert Jankowski: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland

Abstract
Near-field earthquake records including long-period high-amplitude velocity pulses can cause large isolation system displacements leading to buckling or rupture of isolators. In such cases, providing supplemental damping in the isolation system has been proposed as a solution. However, it is known that linear viscous dampers can reduce base displacements in case of near-field earthquakes but at the potential expense of increased superstructure response in case of far-field earthquakes. But can non-linear dampers with different levels of non-linearity offer a superior seismic performance? In order to answer this question, the effectiveness of non-linear viscous dampers in reducing isolator displacements and its effects on the superstructure response are investigated. A comparison with linear viscous dampers via time history analysis is done using a base-isolated benchmark building model under historical near-field and far-field earthquake records for a wide range of different levels of non-linearity and supplemental damping. The results show that the non-linearity level and the amount of supplemental damping play important roles in reducing base displacements effectively. Although use of non-linear supplemental dampers may cause superstructure response amplification in case of far-field earthquakes, this negative effect may be avoided or even reduced by using appropriate combinations of non-linearity level and supplemental damping.

Key Words
seismic isolation; non-linear supplemental dampers; viscous dampers; near-field earthquakes

Address
Elif Guler and Cenk Alhan: Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
In Peru, construction of dwellings using confined masonry walls (CM) has a high percentage of acceptance within many sectors of the population. It is estimated that only in Lima, 80% of the constructions use CM and at least 70% of these are informal constructions. This mean that they are built without proper technical advice and generally have a high seismic vulnerability. One way to reduce this vulnerability is by reinforcing the walls. However, despite the existence of some reinforcement methods in the market, not all of them can be applied massively because there are other parameters to take into account, as economical, criteria for seismic improvement, reinforcement ratio, etc. Therefore, in this paper the feasibility of using five reinforcement techniques has been studied and compared. These reinforcements are: welded mesh (WM), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), steel bar wire mesh (CSM), steel reinforced grout (SRG). The Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method can be useful to evaluate the most optimal strengthening technique for a fast, effective and massive use plan in Peru. The results of using MCDM with 10 criteria indicate that the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Steel Reinforced Grout (SRG) methods are the most suitable for a massive reinforcement application in Lima.

Key Words
strengthening techniques; confined masonry; MCDM

Address
Nicola Tarque, Jhoselyn Salsavilca, Jhair Yacila: Department of Civil Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Grupo GERDIS-PUCP, San Miguel 15088, Lima, Peru
Guido Camata: Department of Engineering and Geology, University G.d\'Annunzio of Chieti and Pescara, Pescara 65127, Italy

Abstract
Material non-linearity of Reinforced Concrete (RC) framed structures is studied by modelling concrete using the Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) theory. The stress-strain data of concrete in compression is modelled using the Hsu model. The structures are analyzed using a finite element approach by modelling them in ABAQUS / CAE. Single bay single storey RC frames, designed according to Indian Standard (IS):456:2000 and IS:13920:2016 are considered for assessing their maximum load carrying capacity and failure behavior under the influence of gravity loads and lateral loads. It is found that the CDP model is effective in predicting the failure behaviors of RC frame structures. Under the influence of the lateral load, the structure designed according to IS:13920 had a higher load carrying capacity when compared with the structure designed according to IS:456. Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) strip is used for strengthening the columns and beam column joints of the RC frame individually against lateral loads. 10mm and 20mm thick strips are adopted for the numerical simulation of RC column and beam-column joint. Results obtained from the study indicated that UHPFRC with two different thickness strips acts as a very good strengthening material in increasing the load carrying capacity of columns and beam-column joint by more than 5%. UHPFRC also improved the performance of the RC frames against lateral loads with an increase of more than 3.5% with the two different strips adopted. 20 mm thick strip is found to be an ideal size to enhance the load carrying capacity of the columns and beam-column joints. Among the strengthening locations adopted in the study, column strengthening is found to be more efficient when compared with the beam column joint strengthening.

Key Words
strengthening; damage plasticity model; ABAQUS; UHPFRC; lateral load; beam-column joint

Address
Sai Kubair Kota: Department of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2628, Netherlands
J.S. Kalyana Rama: Department of Civil Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani-Hyderabad Campus, Shameerpet, Hyderabad-500078, India; Vignana Bharathi Institute of Technology, Ghatkesar, Hyderabad-501301, India
A. Ramachandra Murthy: Fatigue and Fracture Laboratory, Structural Engineering Research Center (CSIR-SERC), Taramani, Chennai-600113, India

Abstract
In this work, we have studied the effects of different soil thicknesses, haunch heights, reinforcement forms and construction technologies on the seismic performance of a composite precast fabricated utility tunnel by pseudo-static tests. Five concrete specimens were designed and fabricated for low-cycle reciprocating load tests. The hysteretic behavior of composite precast fabricated utility tunnel under simulated seismic waves and the strain law of steel bars were analyzed. Test results showed that composite precast fabricated utility tunnel met the requirements of current codes and had good anti-seismic performance. The use of a closed integral arrangement of steel bars inside utility tunnel structure as well as diagonal reinforcement bars at its haunches improved the integrity of the whole structure and increased the bearing capacity of the structure by about 1.5%. Increasing the thickness of covering soil within a certain range was beneficial to the earthquake resistance of the structure, and the energy consumption was increased by 10%. Increasing haunch height within a certain range increased the bearing capacity of the structure by up to about 19% and energy consumption by up to 30%. The specimen with the lowest haunch height showed strong structural deformation with ductility coefficient of 4.93. It was found that the interfaces of haunches, post-casting self-compacting concrete, and prefabricated parts were the weak points of utility tunnel structures. Combining the failure phenomena of test structures with their related codes, we proposed improvement measures for construction technology, which could provide a reference for the construction and design of practical projects.

Key Words
composite precast fabricated utility tunnel; anti-seismic performance; failure modes; steel strain analysis; technique improvement

Address
Yanmin Yang, Xinru Tian, Bo Wang: School of Civil Engineering, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China
Quanhai Liu, Jiabo Zhi: Jilin Senhuang Building Materials Group Co., Ltd., Jilin 130200, China


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