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CONTENTS
Volume 30, Number 5, November 2022
 


Abstract
Cement-based sensors have been widely used as structural health monitoring systems, however, their long-term sensing performance have not actively investigated. In this study, a deep learning-based methodology is adopted to predict the long-term piezoresistive properties of cement-based sensors. Samples with different multi-walled carbon nanotube contents (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.%) are fabricated, and piezoresistive tests are conducted over 10,000 loading cycles to obtain the training data. Time-dependent degradation is predicted using a modified long short-term memory (LSTM) model. The effects of different model variables including the amount of training data, number of epochs, and dropout ratio on the accuracy of predictions are analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated by comparing the predictions for long-term piezoresistive sensing performance with untrained experimental data. A sensitivity of 6% is experimentally examined in the sample containing 0.1 wt.% of MWCNTs, and predictions with accuracy up to 98% are found using the proposed LSTM model. Based on the experimental results, the proposed model is expected to be applied in the structural health monitoring systems to predict their long-term piezoresistice sensing performances during their service life.

Key Words
deep-learning; long short-term memory; long-term cyclic loading; multi-walled carbon nanotube; piezoresistive sensors

Address
Daeik Jang: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Jinho Bang: School of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea
H.N. Yoon: epartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Joonho Seo: epartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Jongwon Jung: School of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea
Jeong Gook Jang: Division of Architecture and Urban Design, Urban Science Institute, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea
Beomjoo Yang: School of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The interfacial bond strength of partially encased composite (PEC) structure tends to 0, therefore, the cast-in-place concrete theoretically cannot embody better composite effect than the fabricated structure. A total of 12 specimens were designed and experimented to investigate the energy dissipation and damage of fabricated PEC beam through unidirectional cyclic loading test. Because the concrete on both sides of the web was relatively independent, some specimens showed obvious asymmetric concrete damage, which led to specimens bearing torsion effect at the later stage of loading. Based on the concept of the ideal elastoplastic model of uniaxial tensile steel and the principle of equivalent energy dissipation, the energy dissipation ductility coefficient is proposed, which can simultaneously reflect the deformability and bearing capacity. In view of the whole deformation of the beam, the calculation formula of energy dissipation is put forward, and the energy dissipation and its proportion of shear-bending region and pure bending region are calculated respectively. The energy dissipation efficiency of the pure bending region is significantly higher than that of the shear-bending region. The setting of the screw arbors is conducive to improving the energy dissipation capacity of the specimens. Under the condition of setting the screw arbors and meeting the reasonable shear span ratio, reducing the concrete pouring thickness can lighten the deadweight of the component and improve the comprehensive benefit, and will not have an adverse impact on the energy dissipation capacity of the beam. A damage model is proposed to quantify the damage changes of PEC beams under cyclic load, which can accurately reflect the load damage and deformation damage.

Key Words
damage; energy dissipation capacity; fabricated; partially encased composite structure; unidirectional cyclic loading test

Address
Kai Wu, Xiaoyi Liu, Shiqi Lin, Chengwei Tan and Huiyu Lu: College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210024, China

Abstract
This paper proposes a numerical model to simulate the rotational behavior of steel fiber in fresh cement-based materials in the presence of a magnetic field. The results indicate that as the aspect ratio of fiber increases, the required minimum magnetic field intensity to make fiber rotate in viscous fluid increases. The optimal magnetic field intensity is 0.03 T for aligning steel fiber in fresh cement-based materials to ensure that the applying time of the magnetic field can be conducted concurrently with the vibrating process to increase the aligning efficiency. The orientation factor of steel fiber in cement mortar can exceed 0.85 after aligning by 0.03 T of the uniform magnetic field. When the initial angle of the fiber to the magnetic field direction is less than 10o, the magnetic field less than 0.03 T cannot make the fiber overcome the yield stress of fluid to rotate. The coarse aggregate in steel fiber-reinforced concrete is detrimental to the rotation and alignment of the steel fiber. But the orientation factor of ASFRC under the 0.03T of the magnetic field can also exceed 0.8, while the orientation factor of SFRC without magnetic field application is around 0.6.

Key Words
fiber alignment; immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method; magnetic field; orientation factor; steel fiber reinforced cementitious composites

Address
Hui Li, Lu Li, Lin Li, Jian Zhou, Ru Mu and Mingfeng Xu: School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300401, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Prefabricated Building and Intelligent Construction, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin,300401, China

Abstract
The high cost of ultra-high-performance engineered cementitious composite (UHP-ECC) is currently a crucial issue, especially in terms of the polyethylene (PE) fibers use. In this paper, cheap calcium carbonate whiskers (CW) were evaluated on the feasibility of hybrid with PE fibers. Diverse combinations of PE fibers and CW were employed to investigate the multi-scale enhancement on the UHP-ECC performance. A probabilistic-based UHP-ECC tensile strain reliability analysis approach was utilized, which was in general agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, a multi-dimensional integrated representation was conducted for the comprehensive assessment of UHP-ECC. Results illustrated that CW improved the compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity of UHP-ECC owing to the microscopic strengthening mechanism. CW and PE fiber further promoted the saturated cracking of composite by multi-scale crack arresting effect. In particular, PE1.75- CW0.5 specimen possessed the best overall performance. The ultimate cracking width of PE1.75-CW0.5 group had 98 um, which was 46.18% lower compared to PE2-CW0 group, the 28d compressive strength were slightly improved, the tensile strain capacity was comparable to that of PE2-CW0 group. The results above demonstrated that combinations of PE fiber and CW could significantly enhance the comprehensive performance of UHP-ECC, which was beneficial for large-scale engineering applications.

Key Words
comprehensive performance; probabilistic-based approach; ultra-high-performance engineered cementitious composite

Address
Li-Shan Wu, Zhi-Hui Yu: Advanced Cementitious Composites Lab., Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214000, China
Cong Zhang: Advanced Cementitious Composites Lab., Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214000, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Environmental Impact and Structural Safety in Engineering, Xuzhou 221000, China
Toshiyuki Bangi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

Abstract
In this paper, we propose an efficient control method that can be transformed into a general building control problem for building structure control using these reliability criteria. To facilitate the calculation of controller H, an efficient solution method based on Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) is introduced, namely H-based LMI control. In addition, a self-tuning predictive grey fuzzy controller is proposed to solve the problem caused by wrong parameter selection to eliminates the effect of dynamic coupling between degrees of freedom (DOF) in Self-Tuning Fuzzy Controllers. We prove stability using Lyapunov's stability theorem. To check the applicability of the proposed method, the proposed controller is applied and the control characteristics are determined. The simulation assumes system uncertainty in the controller design and emphasizes the use of acceleration feedback as a practical consideration. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed controller is impressive, stable, and consistent with the performance of LMI-based methods. Therefore, an effective control method is suitable for seismic reinforcement of civil buildings.

Key Words
civil engineering framework construction; predictive robotic system; self-tuning fuzzy controller

Address
Z.Y. Chen, Yahui Meng, Ruei-Yuan Wang: School of Science, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming 525000, Guangdong, China
Timothy Chen: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

Abstract
Current exertion reports the numerical analysis of boundary layer slip flow of Casson Nano fluid along a permeable cylinder that is stretching in exponential manner. The modeled PDEs are changed into nonlinear ODEs through appropriate nonlinear transformations. Numerical results are attained using a renowned numerical scheme shooting method with Runge-Kutta procedure of 6th-order. Influential role of relevant parameters like Reynolds, suction, Casson fluid and slip parameters on velocity profile is investigated. The effect of influence of slip parameter y on temperature profile is seen through graph. To ensure the authenticity of numerical procedure, outcomes of some special cases of present work are compared with published work and strong agreement is noticed.

Key Words
Casson nano fluid; exponential stretching cylinder; numerical analysis; RK-6 method; shooting technique

Address
Mudassar Jalil: Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia
Waheed Iqbal: Department of Mathematics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
Hassen Loukil: Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Saudi Arabia
Abir Mouldi: Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, KSA
S.R. Mahmoud: Faculty of Applied Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Abdelouahed Tounsi: YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia


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