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Volume 9, Number 4, December 2020

To date, there is no central wastewater (WW) treatment plant in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Therefore, raw WW disposes to the environment and sometimes it used directly for irrigation in some areas of Erbil city. Disposal of the untreated WW to the natural environment and using for irrigation it causes problems for the people and the environment. The aims of the current work were to study the characteristics, design of primary and different secondary treatment units and reusing of produced WW. Raw WW samples from Ashty city-Erbil city were collected and analyzed for twenty three quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS), total dissolved solids, total volatile and non-volatile solids, total acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD), turbidity, etc. Results revealed that some parameters such as BOD5 and TSS were exceeded the standards for disposal of WW. Design and calculations for primary and secondary treatment (biological treatment) processes were presented. Primary treatment units such as screening, grit chamber, and flow equalization tank were designed and detailed calculation were illustrated. While, Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) were applied for the biological treatment of WW. Results revealed that MBBR was the best and economic technique for the biological treatment of WW. Treated WW is suitable for reusing and there is no restriction on use for irrigation of green areas inside Ashty city campus.

Key Words
activated sludge; Erbil city; MBBR; primary units; reusing; SBR

Shuokr Qarani Aziz: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq
Imad Ali Omar: Ministry of Municipality and Tourism, General Directorate of Water and Sewerage, Erbil, Iraq
Mohammed J.K. Bashir: Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology,
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia
Amin Mojiri: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-8527, Japan

Soil degradation has become a major worldwide environmental problem, particularly in arid and semi-arid climate zones due to irregular rainfall and the intensity of storms that frequently generate heavy flooding. The main objective of this study is the use of geographic information system and remote sensing techniques to quantify and to map the soil losses in the Wadi Saida watershed (624 km2) through the revised universal soil loss equation model and a proposed model based on the surface erosive runoff. The results Analysis revealed that the Wadi Saida watershed showed moderate to moderately high soil loss, between 0 and 1000 t/km2/year. In the northern part of the basin in the region of Sidi Boubkeur and the mountains of Daia; which are characterized by steep slopes, values can reach up to 3000 t/km2/year. The two models in comparison showed a good correlation with R = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.43; the use of the erosive surface runoff parameter is effective to estimate the rate of soil loss in the watersheds. The problem of soil erosion requires serious interventions, particularly in basins with disturbances and aggressive climatic parameters. Good agricultural practices and forest preservation areas play an important role in soil conservation.

Key Words
RUSLE; RUSLE-runoff; soil loss; GIS; RS; Wadi Saida watershed

Kessar Cherif and Nasrallah Yahia: Laboratory of Biotoxicology, Pharmacognosia and Biological Valuation of Plants, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Saida, Algeria
Blissag Bilal: Algerian Space Agency, Space Techniques Center, Arzew, Algeria

We provide the first study on the occurrence of microplastics in Dal lake, Kashmir, India. Microplastics act as catastrophe that trigger many environmental problems. The key origins of microplastics are larger plastics, which split into smaller plastics after UV light disintegration. There is relatively little work carried out on the existence of microplastics. The present work has been undertaken on the occurrence of microplastics at four pre-selected sites (surface water) in Dal lake, Kashmir. The samples were taken to the laboratory to dissolve organic matter by using H2O2 (6%). To speed up the organic digestion; the treated mixture was heated on a hot plate at 70

Key Words
Dal lake; microplastic pollution; microplastics; Kashmir; first report; sewage

Juhi Firdous and Yatindra Kumar Mathur: Department of Advanced Science and Technology, National Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajasthan, Jaipur (303121), India
Mubashir Jeelani and Syeed Mudasir: Department of Environmental Sciences, AAAM Degree College Bemina Srinagar, (J&K-190018), India
Adnan Aziz: Department of Biochemistry, Sri Pratap College, M.A. Road Srinagar, (J&K-190014), India
Seema Azmat: Department of Civil Engineering (Environmental Engineering), Chandigarh University (Chandigarh-140413), India

Growth of any country rest in the consumption of industrial wastes for its infrastructure amenities. Countries like India positively desires a vital utilization of industrial waste resembling paper sludge in the construction industry to make various building materials. Also, it is the duty of all civil engineers or researchers to attach them in mounting new materials from the waste dumped as land fillings. In every construction project, about 70% of cost accounts for the procurement of materials. If this, can be minimized consequently the cost of construction will certainly be condensed. Research has established that the waste paper sludge can be reused in the construction field for a probable scope. The construction diligences munch through a massive quantity of non-renewable resources. On the additional dispense, more waste paper board sludge ends up in landfills or dumpsites than those recycled. Consequently, waste paper sludge for use as a construction material composes a step towards sustainable development. Keeping this in mind an endeavor has been made to utilize paper board sludge acquired from the paper board industry and used with several pozzolanic and cementitious materials for a specific purpose. The addition of paper sludge has been varied from 0% to 20% by weight of cement. The tests done with the samples expose that four samples showed significant outcomes with remarkable strength and durability properties which guide to move for the next phase of research for producing lightweight tiles.

Key Words
waste management; paper board sludge; sustainable materials

P. Velumani: Department of Civil Engineering, BMS Institute of Technology and Management, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
P. Manikandan: Department of Civil Engineering, Knowledge Institute of Technology, Salem, Tamilnadu, India

The earlier literature widely documented the role of natural resources in economic development and confined their findings either in support of resource blessing growth or resource curse hypothesis. The ample research on the stated theme has available in the relevant databases, supported with empirical data, while a few studies used a case study or mixed-method approach. The study identified plenty of room on a given topic by conducting a systematic literature review and synthesizing the literature in more meaningful inferences. After a thorough investigation of the literature review through systematic intervention, the study concludes that natural resource management is imperative for a country's sustained growth. Simultaneously, it is desirable to reduce resource conflicts, improve institutional performance, decrease corruption, and stabilize the political environment to get maximum natural resource management potential globally.

Key Words
natural resource management; economic growth; resource curse hypothesis; systematic literature review

Muhammad Asif: Department of Business Administration, Air University, Multan Campus, Pakistan
Khalid Zaman: Department of Economics, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Haripur 22620, Pakistan
Khan Burhan Khan: Department of International Business and Marketing (IB&M), NUST Business School, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan

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