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Advances in Environmental Research
  Volume 9, Number 4, December 2020 , pages 233-249

Stage by stage design for primary, conventional activated sludge, SBR and MBBR units for residential wastewater treatment and reusing
Shuokr Qarani Aziz, Imad Ali Omar, Mohammed J.K. Bashir and Amin Mojiri

    To date, there is no central wastewater (WW) treatment plant in Erbil city, Kurdistan region, Iraq. Therefore, raw WW disposes to the environment and sometimes it used directly for irrigation in some areas of Erbil city. Disposal of the untreated WW to the natural environment and using for irrigation it causes problems for the people and the environment. The aims of the current work were to study the characteristics, design of primary and different secondary treatment units and reusing of produced WW. Raw WW samples from Ashty city-Erbil city were collected and analyzed for twenty three quality parameters such as Total Suspended Solids (TSS), total dissolved solids, total volatile and non-volatile solids, total acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, five-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), biodegradability ratio (BOD5/COD), turbidity, etc. Results revealed that some parameters such as BOD5 and TSS were exceeded the standards for disposal of WW. Design and calculations for primary and secondary treatment (biological treatment) processes were presented. Primary treatment units such as screening, grit chamber, and flow equalization tank were designed and detailed calculation were illustrated. While, Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS), Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) were applied for the biological treatment of WW. Results revealed that MBBR was the best and economic technique for the biological treatment of WW. Treated WW is suitable for reusing and there is no restriction on use for irrigation of green areas inside Ashty city campus.
Key Words
    activated sludge; Erbil city; MBBR; primary units; reusing; SBR
Shuokr Qarani Aziz: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iraq
Imad Ali Omar: Ministry of Municipality and Tourism, General Directorate of Water and Sewerage, Erbil, Iraq
Mohammed J.K. Bashir: Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology,
Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 31900 Kampar, Perak, Malaysia
Amin Mojiri: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-8527, Japan

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