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Volume 9, Number 2, June 2020

In this study, the decolorization of Evercion Blue P-GR (EBP) and Ostazin Black H-GRN (OBH) was investigated using white-rot fungi named as Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor) by Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system. This study involved experiments employing synthetic textile wastewater in Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) system (170 ml), initially inoculated with a pure culture of fungi, but operated, other than controlling pH (4.5±0.2) and temperature (25±1oC), under non-sterile conditions. The effect of dye concentrations on fungal biodegradation was also investigated. The decolorization efficiencies were 98%, 90%, and 87% respectively, for EBP when the initial dye concentration of 50, 100, and 200 mg L-1 were used. However, the decolorization percentages for OBH dye were obtained 95% for 50 mg L-1 dye solution in 2 days and 66% for 100 mg L-1 dye solution in 5 days. Possible interactions between dye molecules and the fungal surface were confirmed by SEM, EDX, and FTIR analyses.

Key Words
biodegradation; textile dye; membrane bioreactor; wastewater treatment

Ulkuye D. Gul: Vocational School of Health Services, Biotechnology Application and Research Center, University of
Bilecik Seyh Edebali, Bilecik, Turkey

Caglayan Acikgoz: Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Bilecik Seyh Edebali, Bilecik, Turkey

Kadir Ozan: Pazaryeri Vocational School, University of Bilecik Seyh Edebali, Bilecik, Turkey

The indiscriminate growth in global population poses a threat to the world in handling and disposal of Municipal solid waste. Rapid urban growth increases the production, consumption and generation of Municipal solid waste which leads to a drastic change in the environment. The methane produced from the Municipal Solid waste accounts for up to 11% global anthropogenic emissions, which is a major cause for global warming. This study reports the methane emission estimation using IPCC default, TNO, LandGEM, EPER and close flux chamber from open dump yards at Perungudi and Kodungaiyur in Chennai, India. The result reveals that the methane emission using close flux chamber was in the range of 8.8 Gg/yr-11.3 Gg/yr and 6.1Gg/yr to 9.1 Gg/yr at Kodungaiyur and Perungudi dump yard respectively. The per capita waste generation was estimated based on waste generation and population. The waste generation potential was projected using linear regression model for the period 2017-2050. The trend of CH4 emission in the actual field measurement were increased every year, similarly the emission trend also increased in IPCC default method (mass balance approach), EPER Germany (zero order decay model) where as TNO and Land GEM (first order decay model) were decreased. The present study reveals that Kodungaiyur dump yard is more vulnerable to methane emission compared to Perungudi dump yard and has more potential in waste to energy conversion mechanisms than compare to Perungudi dump yard.

Key Words
methane emission; IPCC; flux chamber; municipal solid waste; urbanization

Pavithrapriya Srinivasan, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Ahamed Ibrahim S. N., Prasannavenkatesh Ramachandran, Easwari Rajkumar and Palanivelu Kandasamy: Centre for Climate Change and Disaster Management, Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai-600 025, India

Phenol is frequently present as the hazardous pollutant in petrochemical and pesticide industry wastewater. Because of its high toxicity and carcinogenic potential, a proper treatment is needed to reduce the hazards of phenol carrying effluent before being discharged into the environment. Phenol biodegradation with microbial consortium offers a very promising approach now a day\'s s. This study focused on the formulation of phenol degrading bacterial consortium with three bacterial isolates. The bacterial strains Bacillus cereus strain VCRC B540, Bacillus cereus strain BRL02-43 and Oxalobacteraceae strain CC11D were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by soil enrichment technique and was identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis. Individual cultures were degrade 100 µl phenol in 72 hrs. The formulated bacterial consortium was very effective in degrading 250 µl of phenol at a pH 7 with in 48 hrs. The study further focused on the analysis of the products of biodegradation with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT/IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The analysis showed the complete degradation of phenol and the production of Benzene di-carboxylic acid mono (2-ethylhexyl) ester and Ethane 1,2- Diethoxy- as metabolic intermediates. Biodegradation with the aid of microorganisms is a potential approach in terms of cost-effectiveness and elimination of secondary pollutions. The present study established the efficiency of bacterial consortium to degrade phenol. Optimization of biodegradation conditions and construction of a bioreactor can be further exploited for large scale industrial applications.

Key Words
bacterial consortium; fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy; phenol biodegradation

Dhanya V.: Department Of Biotechnology, Al-Ameen College, Edathala, Aluva, Ernakulam, Kerala 683564, India

A time series dataset was conducted to ascertain the effect of water table on the variability in and emission of CH₄ and CO₂ concentrations at a closed landfill site. An in-situ data of methane/carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental parameters were collected by means of an in-borehole gas monitor, the Gasclam (Ion Science, UK). Linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the correlation between ground-gas concentration and water table. The result shows CH₄ and CO₂concentrations to be variable with strong negative correlations of approximately 0.5 each with water table over the entire monitoring period. The R² was slightly improved by considering their concentration over single periods of increasing and decreasing water table, single periods of increasing water table, and single periods of decreasing water table; their correlations increased significantly at 95% confidence level. The result revealed that fluctuations in groundwater level is the key driving force on the emission of and variability in ground-gas concentration and neither barometric pressure nor temperature. This finding further validates the earlier finding that atmospheric pressure – the acclaimed major control on the variability/migration of CH₄ and CO₂ concentrations on contaminated sites, is not always so.

Key Words
asphyxiant; explosive mixture; Gasclam; greenhouse gas; risk prediction

Arthur N. Nwachukwu: 1.) Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL, U.K.
2.) Department of Physics, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi state, Nigeria

Nkechinyere V. Nwachukwu: Department of Community Medicine, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria

Many industries, such as textiles, chemical refineries, leather, plastics and paper, use different dyes in various process steps. At the same time, these industrial sectors are responsible for discharging contaminants that are harmful and toxic to humans and microorganisms by introducing synthetic dyes into wastewater. Of these dyes, methylene blue dye, which is classified as basic dyes, is accepted as a model dye. For this reason, methylene blue dye was selected in the study and its removal from the water was studied. In this study, two efficient biosorbents were developed from chitosan and sunflower waste, an agro-industrial waste and modified using iron nanoparticles. The biosorption efficiency was evaluated for methylene blue (MB) dye removal from aqueous solution under various parameters such as treating agent, solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature. We investigated the kinetic properties of dye removal from water for Chitosan-Sunflower (CS), Chitosan-Sunflower-Nanoiron (CSN). When the wavelength of MB dye was spectrophotometrically scanned, the maximum absorbance was determined as 660 nm. For the core shell biosorbents we obtained, we found that the optimum time for removal of MB from wastewater was 60 min. The pH of the best pH was determined as 5 in the studied pH. The most suitable temperature for the experiment was determined as 30oC. SEM-EDAX, TEM, XRD, and FTIR techniques were used to characterize biosorbents produced and modified in the experimental stage and to monitor the change of biosorbent after dye removal. The interactions of the paint with the surface used for removal were explained by these techniques. It was calculated that 80% of CS and 88% of CSN removed MB in optimum conditions. Also, the absorption of MB dye onto the surface was investigated by Langmiur and Frendlinch isotherms and it was determined from the results that the removal was more compatible with Langmiur isotherm.

Key Words
core shell; sunflower; chitosan; nanoiron; biosorbent; methylene blue

Esra Turgut: Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey

Azize Alayli: 1.) Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey
2.) Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences,
Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey

Hayrunnisa Nadaroglu: 1.) Faculty of Engineering, Department of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey
2.) Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Department of Food Technology, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey

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