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Volume 10, Number 1, March 2021

Rising urban flood patterns are a universal phenomenon and a significant challenge for city government and urban planners worldwide. Urban flood problems range from relatively localized incidents to substantial incidents, which lead to cities being flooded for a few hours to several days. Therefore, the effect may be widespread, such as the temporary displacement of individuals, disruption to civic facilities, water quality degradation and the possibility of epidemics. The problems raised by urban flooding are highly challengeable and compound by ongoing climate change, with adverse implications for changes in rainfall and gaps in intra-urban rainfall distribution. Unplanned construction and invasions of large houses along rivers and watercourses have interfered in natural rivers and watercourses. As a result, the runoff has risen in proportion to the urbanization of the urban floods. The location of the relief camp and the priority for evacuation were determined, and the safest route to avoid floods were established. This method can be used for emergency planning in future flood incidents, and it will help plan disaster preparedness for Panchayat. This study will promote the flood plain

Key Words
GIScience; flood; evacuation prioritization; network analysis; settlement

Jean Joy: Teesside University, Middlesbrough, TS1 3BX, U.K.
Shruti Kanga: Centre for Sustainable Development, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur (302025), India
Suraj Kumar Singh: Centre for Sustainable Development, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur (302025), India
Sudhanshu: Centre for Climate Change and Water Research, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur (302025), India

Kazakhstan's cities experience high concentrations levels of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which is well-known for its highly detrimental effect on the human health. A further increase in PM concentrations in the future could lead to a higher air pollution-caused morbidity and mortality, causing an increase in healthcare expenditures by the government. However, to prevent elevated PM concentrations in the future, more stringent standards could be implemented by lowering current maximum allowable PM concentration limit to Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s limits. Therefore, this study aims to find out what impact this change in environmental policy towards PM has on state economy in the long run. Future PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using multiple linear regression based on gross regional product (GRP) and population growth parameters. Dose-response model was based on World Health Organization's approach for the identification of mortality, morbidity and healthcare costs due to air pollution. Analysis of concentrations revealed that only 6 out of 21 cities of Kazakhstan did not exceed the EU limit on PM10 concentration. Changing environmental standards resulted in the 71.7% decrease in mortality and 77% decrease in morbidity cases in all cities compared to the case without changes in environmental policy. Moreover, the cost of morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution decreased by $669 million in 2030 and $2183 million in 2050 in case of implementation of OECD standards. Thus, changing environmental regulations will be beneficial in terms of both of mortality reduction and state budget saving.

Key Words
air pollution; Kazakhstan; mortality and morbidity; healthcare cost; environmental policy

Elmira Ramazanova, Galym Tokazhanov, Aiymgul Kerimray and Woojin Lee:
Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Green Energy and Environmental Lab.,
National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan

Evaluation of groundwater quality is vital due to its diverse use for several purposes. In the present study, groundwater quality and suitability from the Peshawar basin, Pakistan, were evaluated for drinking and irrigation purposes. The water samples were analysed for major cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and anions (chloride, bicarbonate and sulphate) along with other physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and total hardness). About 95% of the water samples were found to be within the WHO, US-EPA and Pak-EPA permissible levels for drinking purposes. Seventy percent (70$) of the water samples belonged to the hard water category. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as, chloride, residual sodium bicarbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelly' s ration and permeability index were evaluated which demonstrated that the groundwater was highly to moderately suitable for irrigation. A correlation study was conducted to find out the mutual associations among the variables. Piper diagram indicated the overall chemical nature of the study area was calciummagnesium bicarbonate type. Cluster analysis revealed mutual apportionment of various parameters in the groundwater of the Peshawar basin, Pakistan.

Key Words
groundwater; cations; anions; drinking/irrigation water quality; Pakistan

Gulraiz Akhter: Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Bilal A. Mand: Department of Earth Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Munir H. Shah: Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

Landfilling is the most commonly adopted method for a large quantity of waste disposal. But, the main concern related to landfills is the generation of leachate. The leachate is high strength wastewater that is usually characterized by the presence of high molecular recalcitrant organics. Several conventional methods are adopted for leachate treatment. However, these methods are only suitable for young leachate, having high biodegradability and low toxicity levels. The mature and stabilized leachate needs advanced technologies for its effective treatment. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are very suitable for such complex wastewater treatment as reported in the literature. After going through the literature survey, it can be concluded that Fenton-based approaches are effective for the treatment of various high/low strength wastewaters treatment. The applications of the Fenton-based approaches are widely adopted and well recognized due to their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and reliability for the reduction of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) as reported in several studies. Besides, the process is relatively economical due to fewer chemical, non-sophisticated instruments, and low energy requirements. In this review, the conventional and advanced Fenton' s approaches are explained with their detailed reaction mechanisms and applications for landfill leachate treatment. The effect of influencing factors like pH, the dosage of chemicals, nature of reaction matrix, and reagent ratio on the treatment efficiencies are also emphasized. Furthermore, the discussion regarding the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color, increase in biodegradability, removal of humic acids from leachate, combined processes, and the pre/post-treatment options are highlighted. The scope of future studies is summarized to attain sustainable solutions for restrictions associated with these methods for effective leachate treatment.

Key Words
advanced oxidation processes; fenton process, hydroxyl radicals; landfill; leachate treatment

Mujtaba Hussain: Department of Environmental and Management Studies, Al-Falah University, Faridabad, India
Mohd Salim Mahtab: Department of Civil Engineering, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh, India
Izharul Haq Farooqi: Department of Civil Engineering, Z. H. College of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh, India

Anaerobic digestion (AD) refers to the biological process which can convert organic substrates to biogas in the absence of oxygen. The aim of this study was to determine the capability of feedstock to produce biogas and to quantify the biogas yield from different feedstocks. A co-digestion approach was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor operated under mesophilic conditions and at a constant organic loading rate of 0.0756 g COD/, with a hydraulic retention time of 25 days. For comparison, mono-digestion was also included in the experimental work. 2 L working volumes were used throughout the experimental work. The seed culture was obtained from composting as substrate digestion. When the feedstock was added to seeding, the biogas started to emit after three days of retention time. The highest volume of biogas was observed when the seeding volume used for 1000 mL. However, the lowest volume of biogas yield was obtained from both co-digestion reactors, with a value of 340 mL. For methane yield, the highest methane production rate was 0.16 L CH4/mg. The COD with yield was at 8.6% and the lowest was at 0.5%. The highest quantity of methane was obtained from a reactor of Euphorbiaceae peel with added seeding, while the lowest methane yield came from a reactor of Euphorbiaceae stems with added seeding. In this study, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was used as a buffering solution to correct the pH in the reactor if the reactor condition was found to be in a souring or acidic condition.

Key Words
anaerobic digestion; euphorbiaceae; composting tea; COD; CH4; sustainable; CSTR

Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin, Norli Ismail, Noor Fadhilah Fauzi,
Mohamad Haziq Hanif and Faris Aiman Norashiddin: Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
Rasyidah Alrozi: Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Pulau Pinang, 13500, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

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