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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 2, October 2019
 

Abstract
This paper aims to investigate vibration frequency decrease (vibration period elongation) of reinforced concrete (RC) structure with unreinforced infill wall and reinforced infill wall exposed to progressively increased artificial earthquake load on shaking table. For this purpose, two shaking table experiments were selected as a case study. Shaking table experiments were carried on 1:1 scaled prototype one bay one storey RC structure with infill walls. The purpose of this shaking table experiment sequence is to assess local behavior and progressive collapse mechanism. Frequency decrease and eigen-vector evolution are directly related to in-plane and out-of-plane bearing capacities of infill wall enclosure with reinforced concrete frame. Firstly, frequency decrease-damage relationship was evaluated on the base of experiment results. Then, frequency decrease and stiffness degradation were evaluated with applied Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) by considering strength deterioration. Lastly, eigenvector evolution-local damage and eigenvector evolution-frequency decrease relationship was investigated. Five modes were considered while evaluating damage and frequency decrease of the tested specimens. The relationship between frequency decrease, stiffness degradation and damage level were presented while comparing with Unreinforced Brick Infill (URB) and Reinforced Infill wall with Bed Joint Reinforcement (BJR) on the base of natural vibration frequency.

Key Words
frequency decrease; forced vibration frequency; infill wall; shaking table experiment; eigenvector evolution

Address
Onur Onat: Department of Civil Engineering, Munzur University, Aktuluk Campus, Tunceli, Turkey

Abstract
In this paper three damaged exterior RC beam-column joints made of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were repaired. The aim of the study was to restore back the lost capacity of the beam-column joint to the original state or more. A relatively cheap material locally available galvanized steel welded wire mesh (GSWWM) of grid size 25 mm was used to confine the damaged region and then jacketed with cement mortar. Repaired specimens were also subjected to similar cyclic displacement as those of unrepaired specimens. Seismic parameters such as load carrying capacity, ductility, energy dissipation, stiffness degradation etc. were analyzed. Results show that repaired specimens exhibited better seismic performance and hence the adopted repairing strategies could be considered as satisfactory. These findings would be helpful to the field engineers to adopt a suitable rapid and cost efficient repairing technique for restoring the damaged frame structural joints for post earthquake usage.

Key Words
beam-column joint; recycled aggregate concrete; cyclic loading; repair; galvanized welded steel welded wire mesh; seismic performance

Address
Comingstarful Marthong: Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, Shillong 793003, India

Abstract
Structural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams is becoming essential to meet the up-gradation of existing structures due to the infrastructure development. Strengthening is also essential for damaged structural element due to the adverse environmental condition and other distressing factors. This article reviews the state of the field on repair, retrofitting and rehabilitation techniques for the strengthening of RC beams. Strengthening of RC beams using various promising techniques such as externally bonded steel plates, concrete jacketing, fibre reinforced laminates or sheets, external prestressing/ external bar reinforcement technique and ultra-high performance concrete overlay have been extensively investigated for the past four decades. The primary objective of this article is to discuss investigations on various strengthening techniques over the years. Various parameters that have been discussed include the flexural capacity, shear strength, failure modes of various strengthening techniques and advances in techniques over the years. Firstly, background information on strengthening, including repair, retrofitting, and rehabilitation of RC beams is provided. Secondly, the existing strengthening techniques for reinforced concrete beams are discussed. Finally, the relative comparisons and limitations in the existing techniques are presented.

Key Words
RC beams; strengthening; retrofitting; rehabilitation; flexural capacity; shear strength

Address
P. Ganesh: AcSIR, CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 600113, India
A. Ramachandra Murthy: CSIR- Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai 600113, India

Abstract
Torsional behaviors of beams are investigated for the web reinforcement and the concrete type. Eight beams with self-compacting concrete (SCC) and twelve beams with conventional concrete (CC) were manufactured and tested. All the models manufactured as the 250

Key Words
reinforced concrete; self-compacting concrete; torsion; rotation capacity; ductility

Address
Abdulkadir C. Aydin and Baris Bayrak: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ataturk University, 25240, Erzurum, Turkey

Abstract
This paper reports an experimental investigation conducted to evaluate the durability performance of concrete mixtures prepared utilizing blends of Type I Portland cement (OPC) and natural pozzolans (NPs) obtained from three different sources in Saudi Arabia. The control concrete mixture containing OPC alone as the binder and three concrete mixtures incorporating NPs were prepared keeping water/ binder ratio of 0.4 (by weight), binder content of 370 kg/m3, and fine/total aggregate ratio of 0.38 (by weight) invariant. The compressive strength and durability properties that included depth of water penetration, depth of carbonation, chloride diffusion coefficient, and resistance to reinforcement corrosion and sulfate attack were determined. Results of this study indicate that at all ages, the compressive strength of NP-admixed concrete mixtures was slightly less than that of the concrete containing OPC alone. However, the concrete mixtures containing NP exhibited lower depth of water penetration and chloride diffusion coefficient and more resistance to reinforcement corrosion and sulfate attack as compared to OPC. NP-admixed concrete showed relatively more depth of carbonation than OPC when subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results of this investigation indicates the viability of utilizing of Saudi natural pozzolans for improving the durability characteristics of concrete subjected to chloride and sulfate exposures.

Key Words
Saudi natural pozzolan; cement replacement; concrete; compressive strength; durability characteristics

Address
Omar S. Baghabra Al-Amoudi, Shamsad Ahmad, Saad M.S. Khan: Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Mohammed Maslehuddin: Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a zero slump concrete consisting of a mixture of cementitious materials, sand, dense graded aggregates and water. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of aggregate type on strength and abrasion resistance of RCC made by using granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as partial replacement of cement. Mix proportions of RCC were finalized based upon the optimum water content achieved in compaction test. Two different series of RCC mixes were prepared with two different aggregates: crushed gravel and limestone aggregates. In both series, cement was partially replaced with GGBS at a replacement level of 20%, 40% and 60%. Strength Properties and abrasion resistance of the resultant mixes was investigated. Abrasion resistance becomes an essential parameter for understanding the acceptability of RCC for rigid pavements. Experimental results show that limestone aggregates, with optimum percentage of GGBS, perform better in compressive strength and abrasion resistance as compared to the use of crushed gravel aggregates. Observed results are further supported by stoichiometric analysis of the mixes by using basic stoichiometric equations for hydration of major cement compounds.

Key Words
RCC; optimum moisture content; limestone aggregates; crushed gravel aggregates; GGBS; strength; abrasion resistance

Address
Sorabh Saluja, Shweta Goyal: Department of Civil Engineering, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala,147-004, India
Bishwajit Bhattacharjee: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, HauzKhas, New Delhi,110-016, India

Abstract
In this study, the mechanical properties of reactive powder concrete (RPC) with a constant cement to silica fume ratio of 4 were investigated. In the experimental program, reactive powder concretes with steel fiber at different ratios were produced. Five productions using quartz sand with a maximum grain size of 0.6 mm were performed. A superplasticizer with a ratio of 3% of the cement was used for all productions. 40x40x160 mm prismatic specimens were prepared and tested for flexural and compression. The specimens were exposed to two different curing conditions as autoclave and standard curing condition. Autoclave exposure was performed for 3 hours under a pressure of 2 MPa. It was observed that the compressive strength of concrete, along with the flexural strength exposed to autoclave was quite high compared to the strength of concretes subjected to standard curing. The results obtained indicated that the compressive strength, along with the flexural strength of autoclaved concrete increased as the amount of cement used increases. Approximately 15% increase in flexural strength was achieved with a 4% steel fiber addition. The maximum compressive strength that has been reached is over 210 MPa for reactive powder concrete for the same steel fiber ratio and with a cement content of 960 kg/m3. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of reactive powder concrete exposed to both curing conditions was also identified.

Key Words
autoclave; reactive powder concrete; mechanical properties; steel fiber; silica fume

Address
Sakir Erdogdu, Ufuk Kandil and Safa Nayir: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
The present experimental study addresses the structural response of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear. Thirteen RC beams were divided into four different sets to investigate the effect of transverse and longitudinal steel reinforcement ratios, concrete compressive strength change and orientation for installing carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Then, we employed a shear strengthening solution through externally bonded reinforcement in grooves (EBRIG) and externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) techniques. In this regard, rectangular beams of 200x300x2000 mm dimensions were subjected to the 4-point static loading condition and their load-displacement curves, load-carrying capacity and ductility changes were compared. The results revealed that using EBRIG method, the gain percentage augmented with the increase in the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. Also, in the RC beams with stirrups, the gain in shear strength decreased as transverse reinforcement ratio increased. The results also revealed that the shear resistance obtained by the experimental tests were in acceptable agreement with the design equations. Besides, the results of this research indicated that using the EBRIG system through vertical grooves in RC beams with and without stirrups caused the energy absorption to increase about 85% and 97%, respectively, relative to the control.

Key Words
CFRP; shear strengthening; externally bonded reinforcement in grooves (EBRIG); externally bonded reinforcement (EBR); ductility

Address
Amir Shomali, Davood Mostofinejad: Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan, Iran
Mohammad Reza Esfahani: Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract
The objective of this study was to derive a cementitious material for three-dimensional (3D) concrete printing that fulfills key performance functions, extrudability, buildability and bondability for 3D concrete printing. For this purpose, the rheological properties shown by different compositions of cement paste, the most fundamental component of concrete, were assessed, and the correlation between the rheological properties and key performance functions was analyzed. The results of the experiments indicated that the overall properties of a binder have a greater influence on the yield stress than the plastic viscosity. When the performance of a cementitious material for 3D printing was considered in relation with the properties of a binder, a mixture with FA or SF was thought to be more appropriate; however, a mixture containing GGBS was found to be inappropriate as it failed to meet the required function especially, buildability and extrudability. For a simple quantitative evaluation, the correlation between the rheological parameters of cementitious materials and simplified flow performance test results-time taken to reach T-150 and the number of hits required to reach T-150—in consideration of the flow of cementitious materials was compared. The result of the analysis showed a high reliability for the correlation between the rheological parameters and the time taken to reach T-150, but a low reliability for the number of hits needed for the fluid to reach T-150. In conclusion, among several performance functions, extrudability and buildability were mainly assessed based on the results obtained from various formulations from a rheological perspective, and the suitable formulations of composite materials for 3D printing was derived.

Key Words
3D printing; cementitious materials; rheology; extrudability; buildability

Address
Keon-Woo Lee: Department of Safety Engineering, Dongguk University, Korea
Ho-Jae Lee: Structural Engineering Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Korea
Myoung-Sung Choi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dankook University, Korea


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