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Advances in Concrete Construction
  Volume 8, Number 2, October 2019, pages 155-163

Evaluation of 3D concrete printing performance from a rheological perspective
Keon-Woo Lee, Ho-Jae Lee and Myoung-Sung Choi

    The objective of this study was to derive a cementitious material for three-dimensional (3D) concrete printing that fulfills key performance functions, extrudability, buildability and bondability for 3D concrete printing. For this purpose, the rheological properties shown by different compositions of cement paste, the most fundamental component of concrete, were assessed, and the correlation between the rheological properties and key performance functions was analyzed. The results of the experiments indicated that the overall properties of a binder have a greater influence on the yield stress than the plastic viscosity. When the performance of a cementitious material for 3D printing was considered in relation with the properties of a binder, a mixture with FA or SF was thought to be more appropriate; however, a mixture containing GGBS was found to be inappropriate as it failed to meet the required function especially, buildability and extrudability. For a simple quantitative evaluation, the correlation between the rheological parameters of cementitious materials and simplified flow performance test results-time taken to reach T-150 and the number of hits required to reach T-150—in consideration of the flow of cementitious materials was compared. The result of the analysis showed a high reliability for the correlation between the rheological parameters and the time taken to reach T-150, but a low reliability for the number of hits needed for the fluid to reach T-150. In conclusion, among several performance functions, extrudability and buildability were mainly assessed based on the results obtained from various formulations from a rheological perspective, and the suitable formulations of composite materials for 3D printing was derived.
Key Words
    3D printing; cementitious materials; rheology; extrudability; buildability
Keon-Woo Lee: Department of Safety Engineering, Dongguk University, Korea
Ho-Jae Lee: Structural Engineering Research Institute, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Korea
Myoung-Sung Choi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Dankook University, Korea

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