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CONTENTS
Volume 8, Number 1, January 2021
 


Abstract
Mars exploration demands aerodynamic computations for a proper design of missions of spacecraft carrying instruments and astronauts to Mars. Both Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method play a key role for this purpose. To the author's knowledge, the altitude separating the fields of applicability of CFD and DSMC in Mars atmosphere entry is not yet clearly defined. The limitations in using DSMC at low altitudes are due to technical limitations of the computer. The limitations in using CFD at high altitudes are due to thermodynamic non-equilibrium. Here, this problem is studied in Mars atmosphere entry, considering the Mars Pathfinder capsule in the altitude interval 40-80 km, by means of a DSMC code. Non-equilibrium is quantified by the relative differences between translational temperature and: rotational (θt-r), vibrational (θt-v), overall (θt-ov) temperatures, anisotropy is quantified by the relative difference between the translational temperature component along x and those along y (θx-y) and along z (θx-z). The results showed that θt-r, θt-v, θx-y, θx-z are almost equivalent. The altitude of 45 km should be the limit altitude for a proper use of a CFD code and the altitude of 40 km should be the limit altitude for a reasonable use of a DSMC code.

Key Words
thermodynamic non-equilibrium; anisotropy; Mars entry; direct simulation Monte Carlo method

Address
Gennaro Zuppardi: Department of Industrial Engineering – Aerospace Division University of Naples "Federico II", Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy


Abstract
This is an investigation for a more electric regional aircraft, considering the ATR 72 aircraft as an example and the electrification of its four double slotted flaps, which were estimated to require an energy of 540 Wh for takeoff and 1780 Wh for landing, with a maximum power requirement of 35.6 kW during landing. An analysis and evaluation of three energy harvesting systems has been carried out, which led to the recommendation of a combination of a piezoelectric and a thermoelectric harvesting system providing 65% and 17%, respectively, of the required energy for the actuators of the four flaps. The remaining energy may be provided by a solar energy harvesting photovoltaic system, which was calculated to have a maximum capacity of 12.8 kWh at maximum solar irradiance. It was estimated that a supercapacitor of 232 kg could provide the energy storage and power required for the four flaps, which proved to be 59% of the required weight of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery while the supercapacitor also constitutes a safer option.

Key Words
ATR 72 aircraft; flaps actuator power system; solar energy; photovoltaics; thermoelectric energy; piezoelectric energy; supercapacitor; electrochemical double layer capacitor; EDLC; batteries

Address
Ahmed Saleh and Constantina Lekakou: Centre for Engineering Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences,
University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, U.K

John Doherty: Centre for Aerodynamics and Environmental Flow, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, U.K.

Abstract
Selective laser melting (SLM), one of the most widely used powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology, enables the fabrication of customized metallic parts with complex geometry by layer-by-layer fashion. However, SLM inherently poses several problems such as the discontinuities in the molten track and the steep temperature gradient resulting in a high degree of residual stress. To avoid such defects, this study proposes a temperature thread multiscale model of SLM for the evaluation of the process at different scales. In microscale melt pool analysis, the laser beam parameters were evaluated based on the predicted melt pool morphology to check for lack-of-fusion or keyhole defects. The analysis results at microscale were then used to build an equivalent body heat flux model to obtain the residual stress distribution and the part distortions at the macroscale (part level). To identify the source of uneven heat dissipation, a liquid lifetime contour at macroscale was investigated. The predicted distortion was also experimentally validated showing a good agreement with the experimental measurement.

Key Words
selective laser melting; melt pool morphology; distortion; residual stress; finite element analysis; Ti-6Al-4V

Address
Kang-Hyun Lee: Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu Gwanak-ro 1 Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

Gun Jin Yun: Institute of Advanced Aerospace Technology, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu Gwanak-ro 1, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea


Abstract
The increasing interest in the exploration of Mars stimulated the authors to study aerodynamic problems linked to space vehicles. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of a flapped wing in collaborating with parachutes and retro-rockets to reduce velocity and with thrusters to control the spacecraft attitude. 3-D computations on a preliminary configuration of a blunt-cylinder, provided with flapped fins, quantified the beneficial influence of the fins. The present paper is focused on Aerodynamics of a wing section (NACA-0010) provided with a trailing edge flap. The influence of the flap deflection was evaluated by the increments of aerodynamic force and leading edge pitching moment coefficients with respect to the coefficients in clean configuration. The study was carried out by means of two Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes (DS2V/3V solving 2-D/3-D flow fields, respectively). A DSMC code is indispensable to simulate complex flow fields on a wing generated by Shock Wave-Shock Wave Interaction (SWSWI) due to the flap deflection. The flap angle has to be a compromise between the aerodynamic effectiveness and the increases of aerodynamic load and heat flux on the wing section lower surface.

Key Words
wing section Aerodynamics; hypersonic flow; direct simulation Monte Carlo method; wing-flap deflection; shock wave-shock wave interaction

Address
Gennaro Zuppardi: Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Naples "Federico II", Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80125, Naples, Italy

Giuseppe Mongelluzzo: INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131, Naples, Italy


Abstract
A modified fuzzy mechanical control of large-scale multiple time delayed dynamic systems in states is considered in this paper. To do this, at the first level, a two-step strategy is proposed to divide a large system into several interconnected subsystems. As a modified fuzzy control command, the next was received as feedback theory based on the energetic function and the LMI optimal stability criteria which allow researchers to solve this problem and have the whole system in asymptotically stability. Modeling the Fisher equation and the temperature gauge for high-speed aircraft and spacecraft shows that the calculation method is efficient.

Key Words
aerospace vehicles, LMI, smart control, nonlinear systems, stability analysis

Address
Tim Chen: Faculty of Information Technology, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Anzaldi Gu, Giustolisi Xu and Cheng Wang: Department of Control Engineering, Technical University of Bari, Via E. Orabona, 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

Chiayen Hsieh: Education College, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan, Hwa-Shih Education College, Da Hsueh Rd, Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan

C.Y.J. Chen: Key Lab Measurement & Control Complex System Engineering, Barcelona Digital Technology Centre, Barcelona, Spain



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