Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search
Techno-Press Journals

    J. S. Chen
    Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    University of California, Los Angeles U.S.A.

    C. S. David Chen
    Dept. of Civil Engineering
    National Taiwan University Taiwan

    Y. B. Yang
    Dept. of Civil Engineering
    National Taiwan University Taiwan

Managing Editor
    C. K. Choi
    Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
    Korea Advanced Inst. of Science & Tech., Korea

ISSN: 1976-0426(Print), ISSN: 2092-6200(Online)
Vol. 8(4 issues) for 2015, Quarterly
Aims and Scopes

The aim of Interaction and Multiscale Mechanics: an International Journal (IMMIJ) is to provide a platform for publication of research results in which interaction and multiscale mechanics plays a vital role. This journal publishes articles with contributions in all aspects of interaction and/or multiscale problems. The problems of interaction mechanics include the interaction of two different subjects/systems, whether they are connected or not, with or without relative motion. The problems of multiscale mechanics include structural, mechanical or material systems with varying length or time scales. As many contemporary and innovative designs encompass interaction phenomena and multiscale features, papers featuring advancement of theories and applications of interaction and/or multiscale mechanics are particularly encouraged for the journal.

  The themes of IMMIJ cover a wide range of subjects associated with interaction and/or multiscale mechanics encountered in engineering and scientific research and practice. Typical subjects considered by the journal include:
Analytical, computational, and experimental multiscale and interaction mechanics
Fluid-structure interactions
Soil-structure interactions
Vehicle-bridge interactions
Floating and ocean structures
Computational materials science and engineering
Multi-physics and multi-disciplinary problems
Multiscale bio-mechanics
Other related topics
Editorial Board
Narayan R. Aluru
Dept. of Mechanical Sci. and Eng.
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Zdenek P. Bazant
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Eng.
Northwestern Univ., U.S.A.

Ted Belytschko
Dept. of Theoretical & Applied Mech.
Northwestern Univ., U.S.A.

Rene de Borst
Dept. Civil Eng. and Mechanics
University of Glasgow, U.K.

Mark A. Bradford
Sch. of Civil and Environmental Eng.
Univ. of New South Wales, Australia

Achi Brandt
Dept. of Applied Math. & Computer Sci.
The Weizmann Inst. of Sci., Israel

Maenghyo Cho
Sch. of Mechanical and Aerospace Eng.
Seoul National University, Korea

Chang-Koon Choi
Dept. of Civil and Environmental Eng.
Korea Adv. Inst of Sci. and Tech, Korea

Nasr M. Ghoniem
Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng.
Univ. of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Somnath Ghosh
Dept. of Mechanical Eng.
Ohio State Univ., Ohio, U.S.A.

Thomas Hou
Dept. of Applied Mathematics
California Inst. of Tech., U.S.A.

Yonggang Huang
Dept. of Mech. and Industrial Eng.
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Jun-Zhi Cui
Inst. of Computational Math. and Sci.
Eng. Computing, Academy of Sci, China

Michael Griebel
Inst. for Numerical Simulation and Applied Math.
Univ. of Bonn, Germany

Thomas J. R. Hughes
Inst. for Computational Eng. & Sci.
Univ. of Texas-Austin, U.S.A.

Sergio R. Idelsohn
Asociacion Argentina de Mecanica
Computacional, Argentina

Bassam A Izzuddin
Dept. of Civil and Envo. Eng.
Imperial College, U.K.

Liang-Jenq Leu
Dept. of Civil Eng.
National Taiwan Univ., Taiwan

Kim Meow Liew
Dept. of Building and Construction
City Univ. of Hong Kong

Cheng-Tang Wu
Livermore Software Tech Corp.

Tongxi Yu
Dept. of Mechanical Eng.
Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. and Tech.

Mingwu Yuan
Dept. of Mechanics & Eng. Sci.
Peking Univ, China

Wanxie Zhong
Research Inst. of Eng. Mechanics
Dalian Univ. of Tech, China

Antonio Huerta
Dept. of Applied Mathematics
Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya

Dongdong Wang
Department of Civil Engineering
Xiamen University, China

Anthony R. Ingraffea
School of Civil and Envo. Eng.
Cornell Univ., U.S.A.

Wing Kam Liu
Dept. of Mechanical Eng.
Northwestern Univ, U.S.A.

Genki Yagawa
Dept. of Quantum Eng. and System Sci.
Univ. of Tokyo, Japan

Izuru Takewaki
Dept. of Urban and Envo. Eng.
Kyoto Univ., Japan

Chien-Ching Ma
Dept. of Mechanical Eng.
National Taiwan Univ, Taiwan

Herbert Mang
Inst. for Mech. of Materials & Structures
Vienna Univ. of Technology, Austria

Yi-Lung Mo
Dept. of Civil and Envo. Eng.
Univ. of Houston, U.S.A.

Subrata Mukherjee
Dept. of Theoretical and Applied Mech.
Cornell Univ, U.S.A.

J. Tinsley Oden
Dept. of Aerospace Eng. and Mechanics
Univ. of Texas-Austin, U.S.A.

Eugenio Onate
IntĄŻl Ctr. for Numerical Methods in Eng.
Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Spain

Stanley Osher
Dept. of Mathematics
Univ. of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.

Glaucio H. Paulino
Dept. of Civil and Envo. Eng.
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

J. N. Reddy
Dept. of Mechanical Eng.
Texas A&M Univ, U.S.A.

Fernando A. Rochinha
Mechanical Eng. Department
Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Bernhard A. Schrefler
Dipartimento Di Costruzioni e Trasporti
Universita degli Studi di Padova, Italy

Eric Savin
Strl. Dynamics & Coupled Systems Dept.
Office Nat'l dĄŻEtudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, France

Guide to Authors (Last updated: Oct 25, 2021)

1. Submission of the paper
Authors are asked to submit manuscripts in PDF (or Latex) format electronically through the Techno-Press Manuscript Upload System (TeMUS) ( Exceptionally, the special issue papers may be directly submitted to the Guest Editor. If you have difficulties in using TeMUS, please contact us at[]. On receiving submitted papers, the system will issue the paper ID and Password to the corresponding author which may be conveniently used to check the status of submitted papers. Authors should carefully check if their paper satisfied all the requirements in the preliminary list before submission.

2. Preparation of the manuscript
General : The manuscripts should be in English and typed with single column and single line spacing on single side of A4 paper. Submitted papers will be published in regular technical paper only. The first page of an article should contain; (1) a title of paper which well reflects the contents of the paper (Arial, 16pt), (2) all the name(s) and affiliations(s) of authors(s) (Arial, 12pt), (3) an abstract of 100~250 words (Times New Roman, 11pt), (4) 5-10 keywords following the abstract, and (5) footnote (personal title and email address of the corresponding author (required) and other authors' (not mandatory)). The paper should be concluded by proper conclusions which reflect the findings in the paper. The normal length of the technical paper should be about 12-24 journal pages. Authors are advised to read the details in the Authors' Guide for guide and Template.
Tables and figures : Tables and figures should be consecutively numbered and have short titles. They should be referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Fig. 1(a), Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1(a)-(d) / Table 1, Tables 1-2), etc. Tables should have borders (1/2pt plane line) with the captions right before the table. Figures should be properly located in the text as an editable image file (.jpg) with captions on the lower cell. All of the original figures and tables are required to be placed at the suitable locations in the text.
Units and mathematical expressions : It is desirable that units of measurements and abbreviations should follow the System Internationale (SI) except where the other unit system is more suitable. The numbers identifying the displayed mathematical expression should be placed in the parentheses and referred to in the text as following examples (e.g., Eq. (1), Eqs. (1)-(2)). Mathematical expressions must be inserted as an object (set as Microsoft Equations 3.0) for Microsoft Word 2007 and after versions. Image-copied text or equations are not acceptable unless they are editable. The raised and lowered fonts cannot be used for superscription and subscription.
References : A list of references which reflect the current state of technology in the field locates after conclusions of the paper. For details to prepare the list of references and cite them in the text, authors are advised to follow the introduction and the sample list in the Authors' Guide.

3. Review
All the submitted papers that have passed the preliminary check by the editors will undergo a rigorous peer-review process to judge their significance and originality. Those papers positively recommended by at least two expert reviewers will be finally accepted for publication in the Techno-Press Journals or after any required modifications are made.

4. Proofs
Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author to correct any typesetting errors. Alterations to the original manuscript will not be accepted at this stage. Proofs should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

5. Copyright
Submission of an article to a Techno-Press Journal implies that it presents the original and unpublished work, and not under consideration for publication elsewhere. On acceptance of the submitted manuscript, it is implied that the copyright thereof is transferred to the Techno-Press. The Agreement of Authorship, Originality, and Copyright Transfer must be signed and submitted.

6. Ethics
General: Techno-Press applies research and publication ethics standards based on COPE's International Standards for Editors and Authors ( Violation of publication ethics will result in the activation of COPE flow chart. (
Authorship: Authors are encouraged to check ICMJE's guideline for authorship. ( Authorship problems will be dealt with according to COPE flowcharts. (

7. Open Access
There is an option of publishing your paper as Open Access. When you receive a formal acceptance email, you will find a link that you may click on to pay the Article Processing Charge (APC) for Open Access publishing.

Sample issue
Volume 5, Number 1, March 2012

Considerable longitudinal rail forces and displacements may develop in continuous welded rail (CWR) track on long-span bridges due to temperature variations. The track stability may be disturbed due to excessive relative displacements between the sleepers and ballast bed and the accompanied reduction in frictional resistance. For high-speed tracks, however, solving these problems by installing rail expansion devices in the track is not an attractive solution as these devices may cause a local disturbance of the vertical track stiffness and track geometry which will require intensive maintenance. With reference to temperature, two actions are considered by the bridge loading standards, the uniform variation in the rail and deck temperature and the temperature gradient in deck. Generally, the effect of temperature gradient has been disregarded in the interaction analysis. This paper mainly deals with the effect of temperature gradient on the track-bridge interaction with respect to the support reaction, rail stresses and stability. The study presented in this paper was not mentioned in the related codes so far.

Key Words
Temperature gradient; track-bridge interaction; continuous welded rail; buckling factor; numerical modeling.

Rakesh Kumar and Akhil Upadhyay: Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India

  • Wave propagation in a generalized thermo elastic plate embedded in elastic medium
    P. Ponnusamy and R. Selvamani
    Abstract; Full Text (852K)

In this paper, the wave propagation in a generalized thermo elastic plate embedded in an elastic medium (Winkler model) is studied based on the Lord-Schulman (LS) and Green-Lindsay (GL) generalized two dimensional theory of thermo elasticity. Two displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion. The frequency equations that include the interaction between the plate and foundation are obtained by the traction free boundary conditions using the Bessel function solutions. The numerical calculations are carried out for the material Zinc and the computed nondimensional frequency and attenuation coefficient are plotted as the dispersion curves for the plate with thermally insulated and isothermal boundaries. The wave characteristics are found to be more stable and realistic in the presence of thermal relaxation times and the foundation parameter. A comparison of the results for the case with no thermal effects shows well agreement with those by the membrane theory.

Key Words
wave propagation; vibration of thermal plate; plate immersed in fluid; generalized thermo elastic plate; Winkler foundation.

P. Ponnusamy: Department of Mathematics, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India. R. Selvamani: Department of Mathematics, Karunya University, Coimbatore, TamilNadu, India.

  • Multiscale method and pseudospectral simulations for linear viscoelastic incompressible flows
    Ling Zhang and Jie Ouyang
    Abstract; Full Text (4391K)

The two-dimensional incompressible flow of a linear viscoelastic fluid we considered in this research has rapidly oscillating initial conditions which contain both the large scale and small scale information. In order to grasp this double-scale phenomenon of the complex flow, a multiscale analysis method is developed based on the mathematical homogenization theory. For the incompressible flow of a linear viscoelastic Maxwell fluid, a well-posed multiscale system, including averaged equations and cell problems, is derived by employing the appropriate multiple scale asymptotic expansions to approximate the velocity, pressure and stress fields. And then, this multiscale system is solved numerically using the pseudospectral algorithm based on a time-splitting semi-implicit influence matrix method. The comparisons between the multiscale solutions and the direct numerical simulations demonstrate that the multiscale model not only captures large scale features accurately, but also reflects kinetic interactions between the large and small scale of the incompressible flow of a linear viscoelastic fluid.

Key Words
linear viscoelastic fluid; incompressible flow; multiscale analysis; averaged equations; cell problems; pseudospectral algorithm.

Ling Zhang and Jie Ouyang: Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi

  • Deterioration of tensile behavior of concrete exposed to artificial acid rain environment
    Y.F. Fan, Z.Q. Hu and H.Y. Luan
    Abstract; Full Text (13789K)

This study is focused on evaluation of the tensile properties of concrete exposed to acid rain environment. Acid rain environment was simulated by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid in the laboratory. The dumbell-shaped concrete specimens were submerged in pure water and acid solution for accelerated conditioning. Weighing, tensile test, CT, SEM/EDS test and microanalysis were performed on the specimens. Tensile characteristics of the damaged concrete are obtained quantitatively. Evolution characteristics of the voids, micro cracks, chemical compounds, elemental distribution and contents in the concrete are examined. The deterioration mechanisms of concrete exposed to acid rain are well elucidated.

Key Words
concrete; multiscale; SEM; atmospheric corrosion.

Y.F. Fan and H.Y. Luan: Institute of Road and Bridge Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China Z.Q. Hu: Institute of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China

  • Non-linear analysis of pile groups subjected to lateral loads using
    H.S. Chore, R.K. Ingle and V.A. Sawant
    Abstract; Full Text (1717K)

The paper presents the analysis of two groups of piles subjected to lateral loads incorporating the non-linear behaviour of soil. The finite element method is adopted for carrying out the parametric study of the pile groups. The pile is idealized as a one dimensional beam element, the pile cap as two dimensional plate elements and the soil as non-linear elastic springs using the p-y curves developed by Georgiadis et al. (1992). Two groups of piles, embedded in a cohesive soil, involving two and three piles in series and parallel arrangement thereof are considered. The response of the pile groups is found to be significantly affected by the parameters such as the spacing between the piles, the number of piles in a group and the orientation of the lateral load. The non-linear response of the system is, further, compared with the one by Chore et al. (2012) obtained by the analysis of a system to the present one, except that the soil is assumed to be linear elastic. From the comparison, it is observed that the non-linearity of soil is found to increase the top displacement of the pile group in the range of 66.4%-145.6%, while decreasing the fixed moments in the range of 2% to 20% and the positive moments in the range of 54% to 57%.

Key Words
laterally loaded piles; winkler

H.S. Chore: Department of Civil Engineering, Datta Meghe College of Engineering, Sector-3, Airoli, Navi Mumbai- 400 708, India R.K. Ingle: Department of Applied Mechanics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT), Nagpur- 440 010, India V.A. Sawant: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee–247 667, India

  • Coupled foot-shoe-ground interaction model to assess landing impact transfer characteristics to ground condition
    S.H. Kim, J.R. Cho, J.H. Choi, S.H. Ryu and W.B. Jeong
    Abstract; Full Text (4955K)

This paper investigates the effects of sports ground materials on the transfer characteristics of the landing impact force using a coupled foot-shoe-ground interaction model. The impact force resulting from the collision between the sports shoe and the ground is partially dissipated, but the remaining portion transfers to the human body via the lower extremity. However, since the landing impact force is strongly influenced by the sports ground material we consider four different sports grounds, asphalt, urethane, clay and wood. We use a fully coupled 3-D foot-shoe-ground interaction model and we construct the multi-layered composite ground models. Through the numerical simulation, the landing impact characteristics such as the ground reaction force (GRF), the acceleration transfer and the frequency response characteristics are investigated for four different sports grounds. It was found that the risk of injury, associated with the landing impact, was reduced as the ground material changes from asphalt to wood, from the fact that both the peak vertical acceleration and the central frequency monotonically decrease from asphalt to wood. As well, it was found that most of the impact acceleration and frequency was dissipated at the heel, then not much changed from the ankle to the knee.

Key Words
coupled foot-shoe-ground interaction model; landing impact force; ground condition; ground reaction force; acceleration transfer; frequency response.

S.H. Kim, J.H. Choi, S.H. Ryu and W.B. Jeong: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea J.R. Cho: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea; Research & Development Institute of Midas IT., Gyeonggi 463-400, Korea

Table of Contents
  • 2014  Volume 7      No. 1  
  • 2013  Volume 6      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2012  Volume 5      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2011  Volume 4      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2010  Volume 3      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2009  Volume 2      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
  • 2008  Volume 1      No. 1      No.2    No.3    No.4
    2015 Subscription Rates in US$ :
    Interaction and Multiscale Mechanics Volume 8 (4 issues)

    Print +e

    Online +c

    Print & Online

















    C: Complimentary access N: Not available (N/A)
    Orders are accepted by calendar year only.

    1. PRINT+e: Print plus Free Access to the current online articles for the length of subscription until the subscription ends.
    2. ONLINE+c: Access to the current online articles plus Complimentary Access to the articles since the start of journal or as specified otherwise. The access to the articles of paid subscription period will be guaranteed after termination of subscription.
    3. PRINT & ONLINE: Subscribers have benefits of both subscription categories.

    *: The surface delivery is possible only to the countries listed
    ** From 2018, all deliveries outside South Korea will be by airmail.

    Research and Publication Ethics

    All the editors, publishers, researchers, and peer reviewers of Techno-Press journals strongly encourage to carefully review and follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Guidelines,(

    1. Authorship
    Authorship credit should be based on
        (1) Substantial contributors to the conception or design of the work or the acquisition, analysis
       or interpretation of data for the work,
        (2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content,
        (3) Final approval of the version to be published, and
        (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related
       to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
    Authors should meet these four conditions after the initial submission of a manuscript and any changes whatsoever in authorship (adding author(s), deleting author(s), or re-arranging the order of authors) must be explained by a letter to the editor from the authors concerned. This letter must be signed by all authors on the paper. Techno-Press does not correct authorship after the final acceptance unless a mistake has been made by the editorial staff. Authorship may be changed before the final acceptance when the authorship correction is requested by all of the authors involved with the manuscript. The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely manner, and should be available to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information or questions about the paper even after publication.

    2. Originality, plagiarism and duplicate publication
    Submitted manuscripts must not have been previously published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in any other journal without the permission of the Editorial Board. Submitted manuscripts are checked for possible plagiarism or duplicate publication upon the paper's arrival. If plagiarism or duplicate publication is detected, the manuscripts may be rejected, the authors will be announced in the journal, and their institutions will be informed. There will also be penalties for the authors. A letter of permission is required for any and all material that has been published previously. It is the responsibility of the author to request permission from the publisher for any material that is being reproduced. This requirement applies to text, figures, and tables.

    3. Conflict of interest statement
    The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors' interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. In particular, all sources of funding applicable to the study should be explicitly stated.

    4. Process for managing research and publication misconduct
    When the journal faces suspected cases of research and publication misconduct, such as redundant publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problems with a submitted manuscript, appropriation by a reviewer of an author's idea or data, and complaints against editors, the resolution process will follow the flowchart provided by COPE, (
    The discussion and decision on the suspected cases are carried out by the Editorial Board.

    5. Editorial responsibilities
    The Editorial Board will continuously work to monitor and safeguard publication ethics:
    * Guidelines for retracting articles;
    * Maintenance of the integrity of academic records;
    * Preclusion of business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards;
    * Publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed; and
    * Excluding plagiarized and fraudulent data.
    The editors maintain the following responsibilities:
    * Responsibility and authority to reject and accept articles;
    * Avoid any conflict of interest with respect to articles they reject or accept;
    * Promote the publication of corrections or retractions when errors are found; and
    * Preserve the anonymity of reviewers.

    Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2021 Techno-Press
    P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-2-736-6800 (SCS, EAS, WAS, ANR) +82-42-828-7995 (GAE, SEM, SSS, CAC) Fax : +82-2-736-6801, Email: