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Wind and Structures
  Volume 32, Number 5, May 2021, pages 471-485
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2021.32.5.471
 


Thrust force and base bending moment acting on a horizontal axis wind turbine with a high tip speed ratio at high yaw angles
Danijel Bosnar, Hrvoje Kozmar, Stanislav Pospíšil and Michael Macháček

 
Abstract
    Onshore wind turbines may experience substantially different wind loads depending on their working conditions, i.e., rotation velocity of rotor blades, incoming freestream wind velocity, pitch angle of rotor blades, and yaw angle of the wind-turbine tower. In the present study, aerodynamic loads acting on a horizontal axis wind turbine were accordingly quantified for the high tip speed ratio (TSR) at high yaw angles because these conditions have previously not been adequately addressed. This was analyzed experimentally on a small-scale wind-turbine model in a boundary layer wind tunnel. The wind-tunnel simulation of the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) developing above a flat terrain was generated using the Counihan approach. The ABL was simulated to achieve the conditions of a wind-turbine model operating in similar inflow conditions to those of a prototype wind turbine situated in the lower atmosphere, which is another important aspect of the present work. The ABL and wind-turbine simulation length scale factors were the same (S=300) in order to satisfy the Jensen similarity criterion. Aerodynamic loads experienced by the wind-turbine model subjected to the ABL simulation were studied based on the high frequency force balance (HFFB) measurements. Emphasis was put on the thrust force and the bending moment because these two load components have previously proven to be dominant compared to other load components. The results indicate several important findings. The loads were substantially higher for TSR=10 compared to TSR=5.6. In these conditions, a considerable load reduction was achieved by pitching the rotor blades. For the blade pitch angle at 90°, the loads were ten times lower than the loads of the rotating wind-turbine model. For the blade pitch angle at 12°, the loads were at 50% of the rotating wind-turbine model. The loads were reduced by up to 40% through the yawing of the wind-turbine model, which was observed both for the rotating and the parked wind-turbine model.
 
Key Words
    wind turbine, flat terrain, atmospheric boundary layer, aerodynamic loads, wind-tunnel experiments
 
Address
Danijel Bosnar:Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia/ Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Prosecká 76, 19000 Prague, Czech Republic

Hrvoje Kozmar:Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia

Stanislav Pospíšil:Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Prosecká 76, 19000 Prague, Czech Republic

Michael Macháček:Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Prosecká 76, 19000 Prague, Czech Republic
 

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