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Wind and Structures
  Volume 28, Number 3, March 2019 , pages 181-190
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/was.2019.28.3.181
 


Nonlinear modeling of roof-to-wall connections in a gable-roof structure under uplift wind loads
Adnan F. Enajar, Ryan B. Jacklin and Ashraf A. El Damatty

 
Abstract
    Light-frame wood structures have the ability to carry gravity loads. However, their performance during severe wind storms has indicated weakness with respect to resisting uplift wind loads exerted on the roofs of residential houses. A common failure mode observed during almost all main hurricane events initiates at the roof-to-wall connections (RTWCs). The toe-nail connections typically used at these locations are weak with regard to resisting uplift loading. This issue has been investigated at the Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes, where full-scale testing was conducted of a house under appropriate simulated uplift wind loads. This paper describes the detailed and sophisticated numerical simulation performed for this full-scale test, following which the numerical predictions were compared with the experimental results. In the numerical model, the nonlinear behavior is concentrated at the RTWCs, which is simulated with the use of a multi-linear plastic element. The analysis was conducted on four sets of uplift loads applied during the physical testing: 30 m/s increased by 5 m/s increments to 45 m/s. At this level of uplift loading, the connections exhibited inelastic behavior. A comparison with the experimental results revealed the ability of the sophisticated numerical model to predict the nonlinear response of the roof under wind uplift loads that vary both in time and space. A further component of the study was an evaluation of the load sharing among the trusses under realistic, uniform, and code pressures. Both the numerical model and the tributary area method were used for the load-sharing calculations.
 
Key Words
    finite element method; wind load; roof-to-wall connections; wood structures; wind speed
 
Address
Adnan F. Enajar and Ashraf A. El Damatty: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London Ontario Canada
Ryan B. Jacklin: Tacoma Engineers, Guelph Ontario Canada
 

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