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Wind and Structures   Volume 12, Number 4, July 2009, pages 383-400
Simulated tropical cyclonic winds for low cycle fatigue loading of steel roofing
David J. Henderson, John D. Ginger, Murray J. Morrison and Gregory A. Kopp

Abstract     [Buy Article]
    Low rise building roofs can be subjected to large fluctuating pressures during a tropical cyclone resulting in fatigue failure of cladding. Following the damage to housing in Tropical Cyclone Tracy in Darwin, Australia, the Darwin Area Building Manual (DABM) cyclic loading test criteria, that loaded the cladding for 10000 cycles oscillating from zero to a permissible stress design pressure, and the Experimental Building Station TR440 test of 10200 load cycles which increased in steps to the permissible stress design pressure, were developed for assessing building elements susceptible to low cycle fatigue failure. Recently the \'Low-High-Low\' (L-H-L) cyclic test for metal roofing was introduced into the Building Code of Australia (2007). Following advances in wind tunnel data acquisition and full-scale wind loading simulators, this paper presents a comparison of wind-induced cladding damage, from a \"design\" cyclone proposed by Jancauskas, et al. (1994), with current test criteria developed by Mahendran (1995). Wind tunnel data were used to generate the external and net pressure time histories on the roof of a low-rise building during the passage of the \"design\" cyclone. The peak pressures generated at the windward roof corner for a tributary area representative of a cladding fastener are underestimated by the Australian/New Zealand Wind Actions Standard. The \"design\" cyclone, with increasing and decreasing wind speeds combined with changes in wind direction, generated increasing then decreasing pressures in a manner similar to that specified in the L-H-L test. However, the L-H-L test underestimated the magnitude and number of large load cycles, but overestimated the number of cycles in the mid ranges. Cladding elements subjected to the L-H-L test showed greater fatigue damage than when experiencing a five hour \"design\" cyclone containing higher peak pressures. It is evident that the increased fatigue damage was due to the L-H-L test having a large number of load cycles cycling from zero load (R=0) in contrast to that produced during the cyclone.
Key Words
    wind loads; design; pressure; tropical cyclone; damage; cladding; fatigue; test.
David J. Henderson and John D. Ginger; Cyclone Testing Station, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Murray J. Morrison and Gregory A. Kopp; Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

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