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Wind and Structures
  Volume 11, Number 5, September 2008 , pages 361-376

Effect of building volume and opening size on fluctuating internal pressures
John D. Ginger, John D. Holmes and Gregory A. Kopp

    This paper considers internal pressure fluctuations for a range of building volumes and dominant wall opening areas. The study recognizes that the air flow in and out of the dominant opening in the envelope generates Helmholtz resonance, which can amplify the internal pressure fluctuations compared to the external pressure, at the opening. Numerical methods were used to estimate fluctuating standard deviation and peak (i.e. design) internal pressures from full-scale measured external pressures. The ratios of standard deviation and peak internal pressures to the external pressures at a dominant windward wall opening of area, AW are presented in terms of the non-dimensional opening size to volume parameter, , where as is the speed of sound, is the mean wind speed at the top of the building and VIe is the effective internal volume. The standard deviation of internal pressure exceeds the external pressures at the opening, for greater than about 0.75, showing increasing amplification with increasing . The peak internal pressure can be expected to exceed the peak external pressure at the opening by 10% to 50%, for greater than about 5. A dominant leeward wall opening also produces similar fluctuating internal pressure characteristics.
Key Words
    low-rise building; internal pressure; dominant opening; volume; Helmholtz resonance.
John D. Ginger; Cyclone Testing Station, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia
John D. Holmes; JDH Consulting, Mentone, Victoria, 3194 Australia
Gregory A. Kopp; Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, London, N6A 5B9, Canada

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