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Wind and Structures
  Volume 11, Number 2, March 2008 , pages 97-120

Aerodynamic response of articulated towers: state-of-the-art
M. Moonis Zaheer and Nazrul Islam

    Wind and wave loadings have a predominant role in the design of offshore structures in general, and articulated tower in particular for a successful service and survival during normal and extreme environmental conditions. Such towers are very sensitive to the dynamic effects of wind and wind generated waves. The exposed superstructure is subjected to aerodynamic loads while the submerged substructure is subjected to hydrodynamic loads. Articulated towers are designed such that their fundamental frequency is well below the wave frequency to avoid dynamic amplification. Dynamic interaction of these towers with environmental loads (wind, waves and currents) acts to impart a lesser overall shear and overturning moment due to compliance to such forces. This compliancy introduces geometric nonlinearity due to large displacements, which becomes an important consideration in the analysis of articulated towers. Prediction of the nonlinear behaviour of these towers in the harsh ocean environment is difficult. However, simplified realistic mathematical models are employed to gain an important insight into the problem and to explore the dynamic behaviour. In this paper, various modeling approaches and solution methods for articulated towers adopted by past researchers are reviewed. Besides, reliability of articulation system, the paper also discussed the design, installation and performance of articulated towers around the world oceans.
Key Words
    dynamic behaviour; compliant tower; environmental loads; articulation system; wind induced waves; tankers mooring.
Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India

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