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Smart Structures and Systems
  Volume 6, Number 5, July-August 2010, pages 481-504
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12989/sss.2010.6.5_6.481
 


Reliable multi-hop communication for structural health monitoring
Tomonori Nagayama, Parya Moinzadeh, Kirill Mechitov, Mitsushi Ushita, Noritoshi Makihata, Masataka Ieiri, Gul Agha, Billie F. Spencer, Jr., Yozo Fujino and Ju-Won Seo

 
Abstract
    Wireless smart sensor networks (WSSNs) have been proposed by a number of researchers to evaluate the current condition of civil infrastructure, offering improved understanding of dynamic response through dense instrumentation. As focus moves from laboratory testing to full-scale implementation, the need for multi-hop communication to address issues associated with the large size of civil infrastructure and their limited radio power has become apparent. Multi-hop communication protocols allow sensors to cooperate to reliably deliver data between nodes outside of direct communication range. However, application specific requirements, such as high sampling rates, vast amounts of data to be collected, precise internodal synchronization, and reliable communication, are quite challenging to achieve with generic multi-hop communication protocols. This paper proposes two complementary reliable multi-hop communication solutions for monitoring of civil infrastructure. In the first approach, termed herein General Purpose Multi-hop (GPMH), the wide variety of communication patterns involved in structural health monitoring, particularly in decentralized implementations, are acknowledged to develop a flexible and adaptable any-to-any communication protocol. In the second approach, termed herein Single-Sink Multi-hop (SSMH), an efficient many-to-one protocol utilizing all available RF channels is designed to minimize the time required to collect the large amounts of data generated by dense arrays of sensor nodes. Both protocols adopt the Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol, which provides any-to-any routing and multi-cast capability, and supports a broad range of communication patterns. The proposed implementations refine the routing metric by considering the stability of links, exclude functionality unnecessary in mostly-static WSSNs, and integrate a reliable communication layer with the AODV protocol. These customizations have resulted in robust realizations of multi-hop reliable communication that meet the demands of structural health monitoring.
 
Key Words
    wireless smart sensors; multi-hop communication; structural health monitoring; reliability; dense instrumentation.
 
Address
Tomonori Nagayama; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Parya Moinzadeh and Kirill Mechitov; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 N. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Mitsushi Ushita; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Noritoshi Makihata and Masataka Ieiri; JIP Techno Science Corporation, 2-12-11, Nishinakajima, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0011, Japan
Gul Agha; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 N. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Billie F. Spencer, Jr.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Yozo Fujino; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Ju-Won Seo; Long Span Bridge Research Team, Hyundai Instititue of Construction Technology, 102-4 Mabook-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyounggi-do 449-716, South Korea
 

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