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Smart Structures and Systems
  Volume 30, Number 6, December 2022 , pages 613-626

Structural health monitoring data anomaly detection by transformer enhanced densely connected neural networks
Jun Li, Wupeng Chen and Gao Fan

    Guaranteeing the quality and integrity of structural health monitoring (SHM) data is very important for an effective assessment of structural condition. However, sensory system may malfunction due to sensor fault or harsh operational environment, resulting in multiple types of data anomaly existing in the measured data. Efficiently and automatically identifying anomalies from the vast amounts of measured data is significant for assessing the structural conditions and early warning for structural failure in SHM. The major challenges of current automated data anomaly detection methods are the imbalance of dataset categories. In terms of the feature of actual anomalous data, this paper proposes a data anomaly detection method based on data-level and deep learning technique for SHM of civil engineering structures. The proposed method consists of a data balancing phase to prepare a comprehensive training dataset based on data-level technique, and an anomaly detection phase based on a sophisticatedly designed network. The advanced densely connected convolutional network (DenseNet) and Transformer encoder are embedded in the specific network to facilitate extraction of both detail and global features of response data, and to establish the mapping between the highest level of abstractive features and data anomaly class. Numerical studies on a steel frame model are conducted to evaluate the performance and noise immunity of using the proposed network for data anomaly detection. The applicability of the proposed method for data anomaly classification is validated with the measured data of a practical supertall structure. The proposed method presents a remarkable performance on data anomaly detection, which reaches a 95.7% overall accuracy with practical engineering structural monitoring data, which demonstrates the effectiveness of data balancing and the robust classification capability of the proposed network.
Key Words
    anomalous data; anomaly detection attention mechanism; deep learning; structural health monitoring
(1) Wupeng Chen, Gao Fan:
School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China;
(2) Jun Li:
Centre for Infrastructure Monitoring and Protection, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

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