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Smart Structures and Systems
  Volume 28, Number 4, October 2021 , pages 483-497

xShake: Intelligent wireless system for cost-effective real-time seismic monitoring of civil infrastructure
Yuguang Fu, Tu Hoang, Kirill Mechitov, Jong R. Kim, Dichuan Zhang and Billie F. Spencer, Jr.

    Seismic structural health monitoring (SHM) of structures is critical not only to detect earthquakes to send early warning, but also to enable rapid structural condition assessment to ensure safety. Traditional monitoring systems using wired sensors are expensive. Wireless sensors offer tremendous opportunity to reduce costs, which remains elusive for seismic structural monitoring due to two main obstacles. First, there are constraints on power resources. Most wireless sensors are dutycycled to preserve limited battery power; and hence, can miss an earthquake in power-saving sleep mode. Second, there is a lack of support for rapid post-event data collection and processing. Conventional data transmission after sensing can introduce significant delays, and real-time data acquisition that eliminates these delays has limited throughput. In this paper, an intelligent wireless monitoring system, xShake, is developed for cost-effective real-time seismic SHM. It consists of: 1) energy-efficient wireless sensor prototypes utilizing on-demand sensing technique, 2) live-streaming framework that supports high-throughput real-time data acquisition, and 3) a rapid condition assessment application, enabling real-time data visualization and processing for end users. The performance of the xShake is validated through lab tests, demonstrating that it can capture high-fidelity synchronized data under earthquakes and enable real-time structural condition assessment.
Key Words
    earthquake monitoring; rapid condition assessment; real-time systems; structural health monitoring; wireless smart sensors
(1) Yuguang Fu:
School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA;
(2) Tu Hoang, Billie F. Spencer, Jr.:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Matthews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA;
(3) Kirill Mechitov:
Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA;
(4) Jong R. Kim, Dichuan Zhang:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Astana 010000, Kazakhstan.

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