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Steel and Composite Structures
  Volume 31, Number 6, June25 2019 , pages 629-640

Intelligent design of retaining wall structures under dynamic conditions
Haiqing Yang, Mohammadreza Koopialipoor, Danial Jahed Armaghani, Behrouz Gordan, Majid Khorami and M.M. Tahir

    The investigation of retaining wall structures behavior under dynamic loads is considered as one of important parts for designing such structures. Generally, the performance of these structures is under the influence of the environment conditions and their geometry. The aim of this research is to design retaining wall structures based on smart and optimal systems. The use of accuracy and speed to assess the structures under different conditions is one of the important parts sought by designers. Therefore, optimal and smart systems are able to have better addressing these problems. Using numerical and coding methods, this research investigates the retaining wall structure design under different dynamic conditions. More than 9500 models were constructed and considered for modelling design. These designs include height and thickness of the wall, soil density, rock density, soil friction angle, and peak ground acceleration (PGA) variables. Accordingly, a neural network system was developed to establish an appropriate relationship between data to obtain safety factor (SF) of retaining walls under different seismic conditions. Different parameters were analyzed and the effect of each parameter was assessed separately. According to these analyses, the structure optimization was performed to increase the SF values. The optimal and smart design showed that under different PGA conditions, the structure performance can be appropriately improved while utilization of the initial (or basic) parameters leads to the structure failure. Therefore, by increasing accuracy and speed, smart methods could improve the retaining structure performance in controlling the wall failure. The intelligent design process of this study can be applied to some other civil engineering applications such as slope stability.
Key Words
    retaining wall structures; smart design; dynamic condition; optimization
(1) Haiqing Yang:
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China 400045;
(2) Mohammadreza Koopialipoor:
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 15914, Tehran, Iran;
(3) Danial Jahed Armaghani:
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam;
(4) Behrouz Gordan:
Department of Geotechnics and Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia;
(5) Majid Khorami:
Universidad UTE, Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, Quito, Ecuador;
(6) M.M. Tahir:
UTM Construction Research Centre, Institute for Smart Infrastructure and Innovative Construction (ISIIC), School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

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