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Steel and Composite Structures
  Volume 29, Number 2, October25 2018 , pages 201-218

Performance of FRP confined and unconfined geopolymer concrete exposed to sulfate attacks
Radhwan Alzeebaree, Mehmet Eren Gülşan, Anıl Niş, Alaa Mohammedameen and Abdulkadir Çevik

    In this study, the effects of magnesium sulfate on the mechanical performance and the durability of confined and unconfined geopolymer concrete (GPC) specimens were investigated. The carbon and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) fabrics with 1-layer and 3-layers were used to evaluate the performances of the specimens under static and cyclic loading in the ambient and magnesium sulfate environments. In addition, the use of FRP materials as a rehabilitation technique was also studied. For the geopolymerization process of GPC specimens, the alkaline activator has selected a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) with a ratio (Na2SiO3/NaOH) of 2.5. In addition to GPC specimens, an ordinary concrete (NC) specimens were also produced as a reference specimens and some of the GPC and NC specimens were immersed in 5% magnesium sulfate solutions. The mechanical performance and the durability of the specimens were evaluated by visual appearance, weight change, static and cyclic loading, and failure modes of the specimens under magnesium sulfate and ambient environments. In addition, the microscopic changes of the specimens due to sulfate attack were also assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the macroscale behavior of the specimens. Results indicated that geopolymer specimens produced with nano-silica and fly ash showed superior performance than the NC specimens in the sulfate environment. In addition, confined specimens with FRP fabrics significantly improved the compressive strength, ductility and durability resistance of the specimens and the improvement was found higher with the increased number of FRP layers. Specimens wrapped with carbon FRP fabrics showed better mechanical performance and durability properties than the specimens wrapped with basalt FRP fabrics. Both FRP materials can be used as a rehabilitation material in the sulfate environment.
Key Words
    Geopolymer Concrete (GPC); Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP); static and cyclic loading; magnesium sulfate environment; nano-silica
(1) Mehmet Eren Gülşan, Abdulkadir Çevik:
Department of Civil Engineering, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey;
(2) Radhwan Alzeebaree, Alaa Mohammedameen:
Department of Civil Engineering, Duhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Iraq;
(3) An

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