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Ocean Systems Engineering
  Volume 11, Number 3, September 2021 , pages 203-216
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/ose.2021.11.3.203
 

Wheel over point mathematical model
Amir Syawal Kamis, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad, Azmirul Ashaari and Che Wan Mohd Noor

 
Abstract
    This research proposes an improved mathematical model which can be used to calculate wheel over point (WOP) for a ship's route optimisation. WOP is a marking made on the charted course to demonstrate where the ship must initiate the course alteration to guarantee that it follows the route. The advance transfer technique (ATT) was used to determine WOP. Through practical exercise, two gaps were identified in ATT. From there, an improved mathematical model, namely ATMM, were developed. A preliminary manoeuvring analysis was then carried out in this study using a ship simulator for ATMM and the existing ATT. Then, the cross-track distance produced by both methods were compared to verify the difference. It was found that the ATMM produced better result in maintaining a ship on its course. This research's mathematical model is expected to be used onboard ship and used in the Electronic Chart Display and Information System to aid navigator in making more effective course alteration.
 
Key Words
    cross track distance; manoeuvring analysis; passage planning; ship simulation; wheel over point
 
Address
Amir Syawal Kamis: Rating Programs, Akademi Laut Malaysia, BT 30 Kg Tg Dahan, 78200 Kuala Sungai Baru Melaka, Malaysia;
Faculty of Maritime Studies, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,
21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad: Faculty of Maritime Studies, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu,
21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Azmirul Ashaari: Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Bertingkat Skudai,
81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
Che Wan Mohd Noor: Faculty of Ocean Engineering Technology and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
 

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