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Membrane Water Treatment   Volume 4, Number 1, January 2013, pages 11-25
Emulsion liquid membranes for cadmium removal: Studies of extraction efficiency
A.L. Ahmad, Adhi Kusumastuti, C.J.C. Derek and B.S. Ooi

Abstract     [Buy Article]
    Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) process suffers from emulsion instability problem. So far, emulsion produced by mechanical methods such as stirrer and homogenizer has big size and high emulsion breakage. This paper discussed the application of emulsion produced by sonicator to extract cadmium in a batch ELM system. The emulsions consist of N,N-Dioctyl-1-octanamine (trioctylamine/TOA), nitrogen trihydride (ammonia/NH4OH), sorbitan monooleate (Span 80), and kerosene as carrier, stripping solution, emulsifying agent, and organic diluent, respectively. Effects of comprehensive parameters on extraction efficiency of Cd(II) such as emulsification time, extraction time, stirring speed, surfactant concentration, initial feed phase concentration, carrier concentration, volume ratio of the emulsion to feed phase, and pH of initial feed phase were evaluated. The results showed that extraction efficiencies of Cd(II) greater than 98% could be obtained under the following conditions: 15 minutes of emulsification time, 4 wt.% of Span 80 concentration, 4 wt.% of TOA concentration, 15 minutes of extraction time, 250 rpm of stirring speed, 100 ppm of initial feed concentration, volume ratio of emulsion to feed phase of 1:5, and initial feed pH of 1.53.
Key Words
    emulsion liquid membrane; extraction efficiency; cadmium; ultrasonication
School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

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