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Membrane Water Treatment   Volume 2, Number 2, April 2011, pages 105-119
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/mwt.2011.2.2.105
 
Multi-Dimension Scaling as an exploratory tool in the analysis of an immersed membrane bioreactor
A.Bick, F.Yang, S.Shandalov, A.Raveh and G.Oron

 
Abstract     [Buy Article]
    This study presents the tests of an Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) equipped with a draft tube and focuses on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on membrane fouling in a pilot-scale using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by a cylindrical draft-tube. The relationship between cross-flow velocity and aeration strength and the influence of the cross-flow on fouling rate (under various hydrodynamic conditions) were investigated using Multi-Dimension Scaling (MDS) analysis. MDS technique is especially suitable for samples with many variables and has relatively few observations, as the data about Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) often is. Observations and variables are analyzed simultaneously. According to the results, a specialized form of MDS, CoPlot enables presentation of the results in a two dimensional space and when plotting variables ratio (output/input) rather than original data the efficient units can be visualized clearly. The results indicate that: (i) aeration plays an important role in IMBR performance; (ii) implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables ratio is consequently useful to characterize performance changes for data classification.
 
Key Words
    aeration; cross-flow velocity; draft tube; Immersed membrane bioreactor; membrane fouling; multi-dimension analysis.
 
Address
A. Bick: Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jerusalem College of Technology, 21 Havaad Haleumi St., Jerusalem, 91160 Israel
F.Yang, S.Shandalov and G.Oron: J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Kiryat Sde Boker, 84990, Israel
A.Raveh: The school of business administration, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
 

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