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Membrane Water Treatment
  Volume 2, Number 2, April 2011 , pages 105-119

Multi-Dimension Scaling as an exploratory tool in the analysis of an immersed membrane bioreactor
A.Bick, F.Yang, S.Shandalov, A.Raveh and G.Oron

    This study presents the tests of an Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) equipped with a draft tube and focuses on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on membrane fouling in a pilot-scale using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by a cylindrical draft-tube. The relationship between cross-flow velocity and aeration strength and the influence of the cross-flow on fouling rate (under various hydrodynamic conditions) were investigated using Multi-Dimension Scaling (MDS) analysis. MDS technique is especially suitable for samples with many variables and has relatively few observations, as the data about Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) often is. Observations and variables are analyzed simultaneously. According to the results, a specialized form of MDS, CoPlot enables presentation of the results in a two dimensional space and when plotting variables ratio (output/input) rather than original data the efficient units can be visualized clearly. The results indicate that: (i) aeration plays an important role in IMBR performance; (ii) implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables ratio is consequently useful to characterize performance changes for data classification.
Key Words
    aeration; cross-flow velocity; draft tube; Immersed membrane bioreactor; membrane fouling; multi-dimension analysis.
A. Bick: Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jerusalem College of Technology, 21 Havaad Haleumi St., Jerusalem, 91160 Israel
F.Yang, S.Shandalov and G.Oron: J. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Kiryat Sde Boker, 84990, Israel
A.Raveh: The school of business administration, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

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