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Membrane Water Treatment
  Volume 13, Number 2, March 2022 , pages 85-95
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/mwt.2022.13.2.085
 


Estimating anaerobic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated compounds in groundwater by indigenous microorganisms
Sunhwa Park, Deok Hyun Kim, JongHyun Yoon, JongBeom Kwon, Hyojung Choi, Ki-In Kim, Kyungjin Han, Moonsu Kim, Sun-Kyoung Shin and Hyun-Koo Kim

 
Abstract
    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), critical pollutants to human health and groundwater ecosystems, are managed by groundwater quality standards (GQS) in South Korea. However, there are no GQSs for their by-products, such as cis-dichloroethylene (DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) produced through the dechlorination process of PCE and TCE. Therefore, in this study, we monitored PCE, TCE, cis-DCE, and VC in 111 national groundwater wells for three years (2016 to 2018) to evaluate their distributions, a biological dechlorination possibility, and human risk assessment. The detection frequency of them was 30.2% for PCE, 45.1% for TCE, 43.9% for cis-DCE and 13.4% for VC. The four chlorinated compounds were commonly detected in 21 out of 111 wells. In the results of statistical analysis with 21 wells data, DO and ORP also had a negative correlation with four organic chlorinated compounds, while EC and sulfate has a positive correlation with the compounds. This indicates that the 21 wells were relatively met with suitable environments for a biological dechlorination reaction compared to the other wells. Finally, cis-DCE had a non-carcinogenic risk of 10-1 and the carcinogenic risk of VC was 10-6 or higher. Through this study, the distribution status of the four chlorinated compounds in groundwater in South Korea and the necessity of preparing plans to manage cis-DCE and VC were confirmed.
 
Key Words
    biological dichlorination; groundwater; risk assessment; PCE; TCE
 
Address
Sunhwa Park, Deok Hyun Kim, JongHyun Yoon, JongBeom Kwon, Hyojung Choi, Moonsu Kim, Sun-Kyoung Shin and Hyun-Koo Kim: National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon, 404-708, Republic of Korea

Ki-In Kim: Mokpo National University 1666, Muan-gun, Jeollanamdo, Republic of Korea

Kyungjin Han: Korea national university of transportation, Daehak-ro 50, Daesowon-myeon, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea

 

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