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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 6, Number 6, June 2014, pages 531-544

Seismic response analysis of layered soils considering effect of surcharge mass using HFTD approach. Part II: Nonlinear HFTD and numerical examples
Mohammad A. Saffarian and Mohammad H. Bagheripour

    Studies of earthquakes over the last 50 years and the examination of dynamic soil behavior reveal that soil behavior is highly nonlinear and hysteretic even at small strains. Nonlinear behavior of soils during a seismic event has a predominant role in current site response analysis approaches. Common approaches to ground response analysis include linear, equivalent linear and nonlinear methods. These methods of ground response analysis may also be categorized into time domain and frequency domain concepts. Simplicity in developing analytical relations and accuracy in considering soils\' dynamic properties dependency to loading frequency are benefits of frequency domain analysis. On the other hand, nonlinear methods are complicated and time consuming mainly because of their step by step integrations in time intervals. In part I of this paper, governing equations for seismic response analysis of surcharged and layered soils were developed using fundamental of wave propagation theory based on transfer function and boundary conditions. In this part, nonlinear seismic ground response is analyzed using extended HFTD method. The extended HFTD method benefits Newton-Raphson procedure which applies regular iterations and follows soils\' fundamental stress-strain curve until convergence is achieved. The nonlinear HFTD approach developed here are applied to some examples presented in this part of the paper. Case studies are carried in which effects of some influencing parameters on the response are investigated. Results show that the current approach is sufficiently accurate, efficient, and fast converging. Discussions on the results obtained are presented throughout this part of the paper.
Key Words
    nonlinear analysis; ground response; surcharge mass; layered soils; HFTD approach
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, P.O. BOX 76165, Iran.

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