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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 6, Number 2, February 2014 , pages 153-172

Hydraulic fracturing experiments of highly deviated well with oriented perforation technique
Hai Y. Zhu, Jin G. Deng, Shu J. Liu, Min Wen, Cheng Y. Peng, Ji R. Li, Zi J. Chen, Lian B. Hu, Hai Lin and Dong Guang

    In order to investigate the effect of different perforation angles (the angle between the perforation direction and the maximum horizontal principal stress) on the fracture initiation and propagation during hydraulic fracturing of highly deviated well in oil & gas saturated formation, laboratory experiments of the hydraulic fracturing had been carried out on the basis of non-dimensional similar criteria by using 400^3 mm3 cement cubes. A plane fracture can be produced when the perforations are placed in the direction of the maximum horizontal principal stress. When the perforation angle is 45°, the fractures firstly initiate from the perforations at the upper side of the wellbore, and then turn to the maximum horizontal principal stress direction. When the well deviation angle and perforation angle are both between 45° and 90°, the fractures hardly initiate from the perforations at the lower side of the wellbore. Well azimuth (the angle between the wellbore axis and the maximum horizontal principal stress) has a little influence on the fracture geometries; however it mainly increases the fracture roughness, fracture continuity and the number of secondary fractures, and also increases the fracture initiation and propagation pressure. Oriented perforating technology should be applied in highly deviated well to obtain a single plane fracture. If the well deviation angle is smaller, the fractures may link up.
Key Words
    oriented perforating; highly deviated well; hydraulic fracturing; fracture initiation; fracture propagation
(1) Hai Y. Zhu:
State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, China;
(2) Hai Y. Zhu, Jin G. Deng, Ji R. Li, Zi J. Chen, Lian B. Hu and Hai Lin:
State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resource and Prospecting (China University of Petroleum, Beijing), Beijing 102249, China;
(3) Shu J. Liu, Min Wen and Cheng Y. Peng:
CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing 100027, China;
(4) Dong Guang:
Research Institute of Engineering and Technique, Huabei Sub-Company, SINOPEC, Zhengzhou, Henan 450006, China.

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