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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 37, Number 2, April25 2024 , pages 123-133
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2024.37.2.123
 


Effects of loading frequency and specimen size on the liquefaction resistance of clean sand
Sung-Sik Park, Dong-Eun Lee and Dong-Kiem-Lam Tran

 
Abstract
    This study investigates the effects of loading frequency (f) and specimen size on the liquefaction resistance of clean sand. A series of cyclic direct simple shear tests were conducted on Jumunjin sand with varying consolidated relative densities (40% and 80%), f values (0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 Hz), and diameter to height (D/H) ratios (3.63, 3.18, 2.82, and 2.54). The results demonstrated the significant influence of f and D/H ratio on the number of cycles to liquefaction (Ncyc-liq) and the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR15). It was observed that increasing f linearly increased Ncyc-liq. Increasing the specimen height also led to higher Ncyc-liq values irrespective of the f or relative density. Moreover, a positive correlation between CRR15 and f indicated that higher f yielded higher CRR15. This relationship was more pronounced in dense sand than in loose sand. Specimen height also significantly affected CRR15, with increasing the specimen height resulting in higher CRR15 values. Furthermore, the effect of f on CRR15 was less significant compared to the influence of specimen height. The effect of f on the normalized cyclic resistance ratio (NCRR) was relatively negligible for loose sand but more substantial for dense sand depending on the D/H ratio. Data analysis revealed that the NCRR generally decreases as the D/H ratio increases. An interpolation formula was provided to calculate the NCRR based on the D/H ratio regardless of the f and relative density.
 
Key Words
    liquefaction resistance of sand; loading frequency; specimen height; specimen size ratio
 
Address
Sung-Sik Park and Dong-Kiem-Lam Tran: Department of Civil Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehak-ro Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Dong-Eun Lee: Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80, Daehak-ro Buk-gu, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
 

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