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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 19, Number 1, September20 2019 , pages 37-47

Mechanical behaviour of waste powdered tiles and Portland cement treated soft clay
Mohammed A. M. Al-Bared, Indra S. H. Harahap, Aminaton Marto, Seyed Vahid Alavi Nezhad Khalil Abad, Zahiraniza Mustaffa and Montasir O. A. Ali

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficiency of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in enhancing the unconfined compressive strength of soft soil alone and soft soil mixed with recycled tiles. The recycled tiles have been used to treat soft soil in a previous research by Al-Bared et al. (2019) and the results showed significant improvement, but the improved strength value was for samples treated with low cement content (2%). Hence, OPC is added alone in this research in various proportions and together with the optimum value of recycled tiles in order to investigate the improvement in the strength. The results of the compaction tests of the soft soil treated with recycled tiles and 2, 4, and 6% OPC revealed an increment in the maximum dry density and a decrement in the optimum moisture content. The optimum value of OPC was found to be 6%, at which the strength was the highest for both samples treated with OPC alone and samples treated with OPC and 20% recycled tiles. Under similar curing time, the strength of samples treated with recycled tiles and OPC was higher than the treated soil with the same percentage of OPC alone. The stress-strain curves showed ductile plastic behaviour for the untreated soft clay and brittle behaviour for almost all treated samples with OPC alone and OPC with recycled tiles. The microstructural tests indicated the formation of new cementitious products that were responsible for the improvement of the strength, such as calcium aluminium silicate hydrate. This research promotes recycled tiles as a green stabiliser for soil stabilisation capable of reducing the amount of OPC required for ground improvement. The replacement of OPC with recycled tiles resulted in higher strength compared to the control mix and this achievement may results in reducing both OPC in soil stabilisation and the disposal of recycled tiles into landfills.
Key Words
    environmental-friendly; soil stabilisation; recycled tiles; OPC replacement; chemical testing
Mohammed A. M. Al-Bared, Indra S. H. Harahap, Zahiraniza Mustaffa and Montasir O. A. Ali: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysia

Aminaton Marto: Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) Kuala Lumpur, 54100 Kulala Lumpur, Malaysia

Seyed Vahid Alavi Nezhad Khalil Abad: Department of Civil Engineering, Birjand University of Technology, Birjand, Iran

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