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Geomechanics and Engineering
  Volume 16, Number 2, October10 2018, pages 177-185
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12989/gae.2018.16.2.177
 


Investigation of possible causes of sinkhole incident at the Zonguldak Coal Basin, Turkey
Melih Genis, Hakan Akcin, Omer Aydan and Gurkan Bacak

 
Abstract
    The subsidence mechanism of ground surface is a complex phenomenon when multiple seam coal mining operations are carried out. Particularly, the coal mining beneath karstic formations causes a very special form of subsidence. The subsidence causes elasto-plastic deformation of the karstic layers and the collapse of cavities leads to dolinization and/or sinkhole formation. In this study, a sinkhole with a depth of 90 m and a width of 25 m formed in Gelik district within the coal-basin of Zonguldak (NW, Turkey) induced by multiple seam coal mining operations in the past has been presented as a case-history together with two-dimensional numerical simulations and InSAR monitoring. The computational results proved that the sinkhole was formed as a result of severe yielding in the close vicinity of the faults in contact with karstic formation due to multiple seam longwall mining at different levels.
 
Key Words
    sinkhole, subsidence; karstic cave; underground coal mining
 
Address
Melih Genis:Department of Mining Engineering, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey

Hakan Akcin: Department of Geomatics Engineering, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey

Omer Aydan: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ryukyus University, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan

Gurkan Bacak: Department of Geological Engineering, Zonguldak Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey
 

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