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Geomechanics and Engineering   Volume 13, Number 1, July 2017, pages 173-194
Design and construction of shaft for rock caverns in Singapore
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Ming Lu, Dawei Mao, Zhiye Zhao and Liu Hao

Abstract     [Buy Article]
    Access shaft is of critical importance to the construction and operation of underground rock caverns. It usually has a relatively large cross-section and penetrates through fill materials, soil layers, and weathered rocks before reaching the caverns excavated in solid bedrock. In this paper, the design and construction of vertical shafts are reviewed in terms of diameter, depth, geological conditions, and support structure. Three shaft alternatives, namely alternative I: vertical shaft with spiral roads, alternative II: upper shaft with spiral roads & lower tunnels, alternative III: plain shaft, are proposed based on a simplified geological profile of the Jurong formation, Singapore. The advantages and limitations of the three types of shafts are discussed. The key issues relating to shaft design and construction, such as the shaft sinking, water control, support structure, are also discussed with a series of solutions provided, such as the sequential excavation, pre-grouting and diaphragm walls.
Key Words
    shaft; rock cavern; sinking; water control; support structure
(1) Xiao-Ping Zhang:
The Key Laboratory of Safety for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering of Hubei Province, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China;
(2) Ming Lu:
SINTEF Rock Engineering, Trondheim, Norway;
(3) Dawei Mao:
Hydro China Zhongnan Engineering Corporation, Changsha, China;
(4) Zhiye Zhao:
China Railway Siyuan Survey and Design Group Co., LtdWuhan, China;
(5) Liu Hao:
China Railway Siyuan Survey and Design Group Co., LtdWuhan, China.

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